Grammar - pannous/hieros GitHub Wiki

Middle Egyptian is an astonishingly simple language, one might even say primitive. Whether this is mostly due to its age, or whether its original simplicity was a devised feature of the written language.

Negative 𓂜 n no, 𓂜𓈖non, nein, 𓂜𓏏 not anti- un- 𓅱-
Negation 𓂜 manu-(keltic) ma- mo-(greek) 𓅱- 𓅓- don’t 𓏏𓍃
Feminine suffix 𓏏 -t ⋍ -tha ⋍ -σα -ss 𐍉𓍲 prince => princessa brewer⇨brewster 𓇓𓈞𓏏 ⲟⲩⲣⲱ shar
Verb suffixes 𓏏 -tu -do 𓂻 -ir 𓉐𓏏𓂻 partir (to part)
Prepositions 𓈖 in, an, on, ina 𒀸 𓐝 𓅓 im, mi⋍mit=with, 𓂋 r:à, re-, 𓏏 to, at …
Comparatives via suffix 𓂋 -r hard —> harder -𔖱 -𔖲 -r better 𓂋 𐌷𐌰𐍂𐌳𐌹𐌶𐌰 hard.osa 𓂋 -𐍉𐌶𐌰 größer
Adjectives via suffix -y ـِيّ -iyy -𓇋𓇋 -𓏮 fun => funny -ial -ly -ful -voll -faire 𓅫𓅪𓅩
Adjectives via suffix -ty 𓏏𓏮 -𓏏𓍔 -다 high => haughty -tive rime => primitive
Adjectives via suffix -tig -𓍘𓏤 түг tüg tek түү tig tique < Tiegel 𓍘
Adjectives via suffix -t… -𓏜 -de -的 pregnant = 𓃀 𓂓 𓁑 𓏜 -tī -tia*

Verbs conjugation past+passive 𓅱 -w 𓈖 -n : see-saw-seen
Verbs conjugation past+passive 𓏏 -t -ed : walk-walked 𓍿 cover-covered 𓎛𓃀𓋳𓍿
Past / passive markers -ed -en 𓏏 𓈖 𒁲 𒅔 : 𒋫 𒀜 𒋫 𒁲 𒅔 ta-at-ta-di-in donated た -ta
Nouns and Determinants 𓏛
Quantors 𓎡𓎟kAlle 𓇋𓈖 ∃n/ein 𓃹san 𓂜non/null/not 𓆈𓏥exa many𓏠
Numbers 𓈋dual -di 𓏮 = 𓍘𓇋 twi𓈇 3. 𓐍𓏏 cird 4. 𓆑𓂧𓅱четꙑр 6 𓋴𓇋𓋴 sis 7 𓋴𓆑𓎛𓅱 sevhen
Pronouns singular ante* 𓇋=I 𓎡=kyou 𓆑=φhe 𓋴she/es
Pronouns plural 𓈖𓏪nōs 𓍿𓈖𓏪thine 𓋴𓈖𓏤𓏤𓏤them
Interrogatives / Reflexive questions 𓊪𓍢who/one 𓊪𓏏𓂋𓆵 whether …
Imperative / Subjunctive 𓅖𓈙𓂻 𓋴 marche-she! She (should/may/...) go!
Conjunction implicit 𓅓𓅱𓏏𓅐 𓇋𓏏𓆑𓀀 Muta 𓇋atav : Mother (and) Father
Conjunction explicit 𓅓𓅱𓏏𓅐 𓎛𓈖𓂝 𓇋𓏏𓆑𓀀 … Muta ḫand Fatav Mother and/con Father …
Gerund prefix 𓅓 am Tanzen / im Tanze —> dancing ϫⲓⲛ- present participle
Particles and Interjections 𓄿 ah! 𓎛 𓄿 ha! ...
Plural 𓅱 ‘w’ wə ⋍ ən marche=>marchons⋍marchə ⋍ Sonne⇨Sonnen
Plural 𓏲/𓍢 •wr/wn

Todo suffixes 𓅱𓏏𓏪 -ness -mes -tum -tion -ter 𓏛

Some authors, notoriously James P. Allen, project 'a few' more grammatical categories on the very limited set of suffixes, but the set given above covers approximately 95% of all texts.

To get a feeling for the grammatical flow try an excerp of the [Tale of the shipwrecked Sailor](Tale of the shipwrecked Sailor)

Is important to remember that alignments between ancient Egyptian and Semitic languages do not contradict alignments between ancient Egyptian and European languages, since both may share common roots.

Even James Allen, the master of projecting plethorae of modern linguistic concepts onto literary a handful of word endings, often remarks its similarity with English.