causative - pannous/hieros Wiki

All languages have ways to express causation but differ in the means. Most, if not all, languages have lexical causative forms.
English:
rise → raise, lie → lay, sit → set (make something sit)
saint ⇨ sanctify (faire=do)
glad ⇨ gladden (dan,done,do)

Related to perfective completive

In Egyptian the causative is marked by prefix 𓋴 's' or 𓅨(faire) or suffix 𓇋𓀁(faire)

𓋴- causa- cause- cess- syn- sym- set- zu- zum- con- 𓋴𓈖- 𓋴𓅱- sich- self- se- ge- Γ
𓋴- Γ- s- 𓐍- 𓊃- causative vs s⇨h⇨ø erosion !

𓁹 ⲓⲉⲣ ⋍ ⲓⲣⲓ faire > ver… re-… ⲉⲣ- er-… ⲓⲣⲓ ⲛⲃⲉⲣⲓ = renew, erneuern, make new
ⲟⲩⲣⲟ: king ⇨ ⲉⲣⲟⲩⲣⲟ be king, reign ⇔ ⲓⲣⲓ ⲛⲟⲩⲣⲟ make king

Ubiquitous prefixes in IE languages.
Contrast the repetitive component of re- versus the causative component of german er ir- *uʀ- ver… ⇔ over faire

𓂦 secret 𓏴 ⇨
𓋴 𓂦 𓂋 𓏜 consecrate, sanctify

𓈎 𓋴 𓌟 kraft … ⇔ causa cause 𓋴 𓏙

In Cuneiform it may be expressed via 𒋗 šu® or the «generator» GUNU ⋍ 𒆦 ligature
𒅆 IGI Auge eye
𒅊 IGI{GUNU} be bright, shine, see
𒄩 kud : cod-fish ⇨
𒋗𒄩 šu'kud Catcher: Fisher (causative/always reverse)

In Akkadian the Š-stem is formed by adding a prefix š-, and these forms are mostly causatives.
Causative or intensive forms are also formed with the doubled D-stem. გა DO (Tat)

𓐍𓂋𓀒𓂝 crumble,fall down ⇨ 𓊃 𓐍 𓂋 𓀒 𓂝 screw/throw down

salt is the optional causative of halt(bar) halltu, alt-bar (old-preserving, durable)

𓎛 𓌴 𓏏 𓈒 𓏥 salt|[email protected] Halaitz ἁλίζ αλάτι aláti ἅλς háls
[𓎛]] [[𓌴]] 𓏏 𓈒 𓏥 salt](/pannous/hieros/wiki/𓋴•-shalis-saletz-ال.صلت=salt-Salz--塩-しお-shio(l)-[[石) só suola соль сіль नुन sol

𓊣 stand ⇨ 𓋴 𓊣 cause to stand
𓋾 rule ⇨ 𓋴 𓋾 𓈎 𓏛 cause to rule
𓈍 appear ⇨ 𓋴 𓈍 cause to appear
𓄲 whirl ⇨ 𓋴 𓄲 𓂋 𓂻 cause to circulate
𓍯 𓄿 𓐎 rot ⇨ 𓋴 𓂝 𓍯 𓄿 𓐎 cause to go bad
𓂝 𓂋 𓏮 𓈐 𓂻 arise ⇨ 𓋴 𓂝 𓂋 𓏮 𓈐 𓂻 cause to ascend, approach, rise
𓁹 (ad)mire ⇨ 𓊃 𓅠 𓅓 𓎛 𓁹 | cause to see

Some forms might have arisen through S>Š>H>° erosion

part ⇨ separate 𓐝 ⇨ 𓐛 𓈈 𓊒 𓄇 𓄂 𓄖
part ⇨ separate 𓉐 ⇨ 𓏙 𓉐 𓂋 𓂻 depart
part ⇨ separate Sparte Spalt 𓋴 𓊪 𓏏 𓂏 | lip (of mouth, vulva) | shphat الشفة AR ⇔ Scheide 𓄞𓂧𓊌
part ⇨ depart 𓍼 𓂻
part ⇨ fruit 𓍁𓈓𓏯𓌾𓏥
pierce ⇨ spear
blade ⇨ split, spalt 𓋴 𓆑 𓏏 𓌪 sword Sebel™
Beil балта balta 𓌏 ⇨ spalt
metzsmite
peek ⇨ spectate, spy, späh
cut ⇨ sect…
elect ⇨ select
lune ⇨ selene
Reihe(row) ⇨ Serie serial
tall ⇨ stell ⲧⲁⲗⲉ
Haar/hair 𓎛 ⇨Schär 𒋠 𓁸 scher
Bach ⇨ sebach(im) سابحة = swim / sich baden
blow ⇨ Spiel (s'*bʰleh₁) 𓋴 𓃀 𓇋 𓅱 𓀁 𓀀 (Flöten) Spieler (flautist)
Halt ⇨ shelter
Hut ⇨ Schutz (protection)
Trasse ⇨ Strasse
halt ⇨ shelter / shield / Schuld?
hut 𓉗 ⇨ shed
guild/gold/Geld ⇨ skéltis Schuld
Himmel ⇨ schimmer ⇨ shine <= Son™ ??
dreel(wheel) ⇨ control
word ⇨ swear (answer, Antwort)
creel 𓐍𓈖𓏛 ⇨ 𓋴𓈖 𓐍𓈖𓏛 control ©
moot ⇨ smooth 𓋴 𓈖 𓂝 𓂝 𓏞 𓏛
way ⇨ convey
way 𓍑𓄿 ⇨ 𓋴𓅱 𓍑𓄿𓂻 convey
bend ⇨ serpent ⇔ ἕρπω (hérpō) harpy!
𓅡 𓈎 bright ⇨ 𓋴 𓅡 𓈎 𓆭 cleanse
guard,wehr ⇨ gewähr (guarantee, warranty)
fahr ⇨ safari 𓋴 𓍯 𓄿 𓅱 𓈐 𓂻 (travel) < caporeía 𓐍 𓊪 𓂻 = travel ⇔ curve
far ⇨ safari 𓋴 𓍯 𓄿 𓅱 𓈐 𓂻 journey ⇔ 𓍯 𓄿 𓈐 far
semen ⇨ sesame
lone ⇨ silence, salam
Kante ⇨ Secante
greg ⇨ segregate
ism ⇨ seism ?
midi ⇨ semi
mind ⇨ 𓄣𓏤 𐌼𐌿𐌽𐌰𐌽 munan ⇨ smaoinich vermeinen
hand ⇨ send
equal ⇨ sequel ?
quest ⇨ sequester
rub ⇨ scrub
nose ⇨ nâšam 👃 (breath) 𓂊
nose نَفَا nafā ⇨ schnief schnupf 👃
eat ⇨ seat,sit
eat ⇨ seed
mog => smoke (Celtic)
pit ⇨ spit
bucket ⇨ 𓃀 𓈙 𓂐 beżaq بصق ⇨ spucken
basket ⇨ بصق báṣaqa 𓊪 𓋴 𓎼 𓂐, 𓊪 𓊃 𓎼 𓄑 𓀁 ⇨ spucken
Aug ⇨ Such, seek
urge ⇨ search
close, cloud ⇨ seclude
frage⋍pregunta⋍pray⋍prege ⇨ s'prage = Sprache
laufen ⇨ Schlaufe
loop ⇨ •s'loop > Schlaufe
leib/loaf/love ⇨ (bei)Schlafen
nobel, nob (gold) ⇨ snob
neige,neve ⇨ snow (Niesel)
alt, halten ⇨ salt [preserve]
lemon ⇨ salmon [harbor/preserve]
achor ⚓𓋹 ⇨ 𓋩 senk/sankt/sanct/saint
reed ⇨ scrit, secret, script, crypt
ancle ⇨ Senkel 𓋸𓎬𓋹 (san'dal straps )
count ⇨ second ƒ
cure ⇨ secure
date,daur? ⇨ sedate
edge ⇨ sedge
ⲃⲣⲁ 𓉐 𓂋 𓏏 𓍁 𓈓 fruit, seed ⇨ ⲥⲡⲟⲣⲁ spore ⲥⲡⲉⲣⲙⲁ sperma seed
ⲣⲱⲧ , ⲣⲉⲧ ⇨ sprout
duce ⇨ seduce (dictum)
pious ⇨ sapience
nivis naiv neve … ⇨ snow (Neuschnee)
arg ⇨ Sarg (sarcophagus)
Tyre ⇨ satire 𓈙 𓇾 𓍔 𓄿 𓏴
pike ⇨ Spitze ⇨ Spaß 𓋴 𓃀 𓍿 𓄑 𓀁
pike ⇨ špička 𓋴𓐟𓄿𓎛𓃃𓄹𓏤 (toe) @CES
Affe ⇨ safe
Kläph(dog) ⇨ scalp ?
calibre ⇨ scale
Klopp ⇨ scallop
pod ⇨ spatzieren
pace ⇨ space (1/)
πηδάω pēdáō πετάγομαι petágomai ⇨ ξεπετάγομαι xepetágomai 𓋴 𓍿 𓊪 𓂻 jump
cab ⇨ scab, scalp
Bad ⇨ ṣabata, ṣabaya ጸበተ, ጸበየ 𓈖 𓋞 𓃀 𓈗 bath, swim, säubern
cut/cat ⇨ scatter
cold ⇨ scald ƒ
column/caller ⇨ scalar ?
ay ⇨ say
allo ⇨ salut
plane ⇨ planet
grab ⇨ 𓎼 𓂋 𓍅 𓏲 𓀜 ⇨ shikâr شكار šekâr ⇔ ϭⲱⲣϫ search, hunt
faire ⇨ sphere
turn ⇨ Saturn (planet)
tree ⇨ satyr (god of woods)
fire ⇨ sapphire (red vs blue!)
muert 𓅓 𓏱 𓏏 ⇨ schmerz 𓋴 𓍋 𓅓 𓂋 𓅪 (cause pain)
𓍋 𓅓 𓂋 𓅪 mourning/pain ⇨ schmerzen 𓋴 𓍋 𓅓 𓂋 𓅪 (cause pain)
Bett/beth/bath/bad/beten ⇨ sabbath
acha (rule) ⇨ sachem
acra? ⇨ sacra
Agni अग्नि ignite ⇨ 𓋴 𓍑 𓏏 𓅱 𓋩 | seal | signet signum “stigma/sign” 𓍑 (Brandmal, sinetti)
guitar ⇨ sagittarius ƒ
photo ⇨ 𓋴𓈙𓊪𓇳 سپید sapêd/saphir 𓁽 causative
AN 𒀭 𓇼 ⇨ 𓇶 Sun 三 𓋴𓌈𓇶 shine 𓋴𓌌𓇳

𓋴 𓂋 𓅓 𓁿 | cause to weep | grämen ärgern ++
𓋴 𓂝 𓂋 𓂻 | cause to approach (of death), bring to an end, forward (pleas, affairs) |
𓋴 𓂝 𓂋 𓂻 | cause to ascend, make to rise (in rank) |
𓋴 𓂝 𓂋 𓈐 𓂻 | cause to approach (of death), bring to an end, forward (pleas, affairs) |
𓋴 𓂝 𓂋 𓈐 𓂻 | cause to ascend, make to rise (in rank) |
𓋴 𓂝 𓂋 𓏮 𓈐 𓂻 | cause to approach (of death), bring to an end, forward (pleas, affairs) |
𓋴 𓂝 𓂋 𓏮 𓈐 𓂻 | cause to ascend, make to rise (in rank) | SORTIR!!
𓋴 𓂝 𓍯 𓄿 𓐎 | cause to go bad | thrower? / Europa
𓋴 𓄲 𓂋 𓂻 𓏛 | cause to circulate, brandish (weapons) | stirr++++ ⇔ circul specific!
𓋴 𓄲 𓂋 𓂻 | cause to circulate, brandish (weapons) | circul ⇔ 𓋴 𓄲 𓂋 +++
𓋴 𓅧 𓈎 𓂻 | cause to enter, bring to land, bring, send in, drive (animals) | ⇔ send? mission?
𓋴 𓈍 | cause to appear (of a god or king), display (object) | √shine
𓋴 𓈍 𓂝 | cause to appear (of a god or king), display (object) | show?
𓋴 𓈍 𓂝 𓇋 𓇋 | cause to appear (of a god or king), display (object) | schron? ←?> shine? ⇔ shown / kuron / geron
𓋴 𓉔 𓂢 𓂡 | terrorize | raise up, cause to stand ??
𓋴 𓊢 𓂝 𓂻 | (causitive) raise up, cause to stand, set up, erect, insatl, accuse, establish (against) | stair : stehen
𓋴 𓊣 | raise up, cause to stand, set up, erect, insatl, accuse, establish (against) | stand
𓋴 𓋾 𓈎 𓏛 | cause to rule, install as ruler | ___ / ⋍Sektor? / Schichter / shake
𓋴 𓍋 𓅓 𓂋 𓅪 | cause pain | schmerzen (etw.) +++
𓋴 𓏏 𓎡 𓈖 𓂻 | cause to approach, induct (into), cut short, bring on (doom), execute (judgements) | (voll)strecken
𓋴 𓐪 𓂧 𓈒 𓀨 | cause to build | s'parta s'builda

Egyptian causative forms without known correspondance:

𓋴 𓌴 𓁹 𓄿 𓅱 | renovate, renew | < 𓌴 new shine?
𓋴 𓌴 𓁹 𓄿 𓂋 𓌗 | impoverish | ϩⲏⲕⲓ ?

Coptic prefixes

zu- ⲉ- to
à- ⲉ- to
er- ⲉ- to
ⲉⲣ- er- ⲕⲟⲩⲣ:deaf ⇨ ⲉⲣⲕⲟⲩⲣ become deaf causative
ⲉⲣ- ver-
ⲉⲣ- zer-
ϫⲓⲛ- ~ -ing see syn

main => remain main => ϫⲓⲛⲁⲙⲟⲛⲓ arrest, restrain

𒄩kud:cod-fish ⇨ 𒋗𒄩 šu'kud Catcher: Fisher (causative/always reverse)

ge-… german prefix (Gesicht, Gehör, Glaube)
be-… german prefix (Begriff, believe)
q’… q’nosva 𓂉 ყნოსვა q̇nosva (smell) 𓐍.nose𓂉
𓐍… 𓐍𓈖𓌰𓂉𓏥 q’nosva 𓂉 ყნოსვა q̇nosva (smell) QED

Compare passive/abstract marker
be- [bu]]-… бу бо пу [[turk]]ish prefix (the/this) 𓂧 𓂋 𓄛](/pannous/hieros/wiki/|bat-(mammal)|-bat-<-বাদুড়-baduṛ-<-bu.𓂧𓂋[[𓄛)

𓄋 𓊪 𓀁 | judge(ing) |
𓄋 𓊪 𓏏 𓏛 | judgement | päätös ++ päättää pää⋍𓄋⋍𓁷 ttää⋍tu/do causative ⇔ tion

𓋴 𓂧 𓈙 𓂋 𓅱 𓅪 𓏥 | reddening | se'dasher (causative)

𓈖 𓆑 𓏏 𓊡 𓏲 | breath | naut? ( atem reverse ) ⇨
𓊃 𓈖 𓆑 𓏮 𓊡 | © make to breathe | շունչ ʃunçʰ Schwung ⇔ Zunge BREATH

yi tsammani 𓋴.ment

ה ha 𓎛 <> 𓋴 nominal prefix article 𓎛 𓋴 𓃀 𓅱 𓐎 𓏛 | reckoning, account | հաշվել hašvel < hasafár סָפַר • 𓋴 𓃀 𓅱 𓐎 | sumbero > 𐎒𐎔𐎗 spr 𓋴 𓃀 𓅱 𓐎 separte סָפַר safár “count” numbero maybe double causative of • 𓃀 𓅱 𓐎 𓏛 počítat “count” <> Posten палічы́ць paličýc

𓎡 𓄿 𓏏 𓀁 | plan, thought, device, plot | Karte,chart,card => s'crit causative Kraft ?
𓊃 𓐍 𓂋 𓅱 𓏛 | plan | σχῆμα secret scheme scrit

Hebrew ה letter h < ch < the? ₪ causative from nouns / article for nouns 𓈍 הִכְתִּיר hikhtír coronate <= כ־ת־ר k-t-r kéter “crown”