13.Qualitative01.Cognitive task analysis - sporedata/researchdesigneR Wiki

1. Use cases: in which situations should I use this method?

  1. Evaluate patients' understanding of a given content (learning, shared decision making, Web applications, etc)
  2. Quick iterations (Agile) to improve material based on patients' feedback
  3. Can also be used with other stakeholders for the same purposes: clinicians, hospital administrators, policy makers
  4. Understand how experts (e.g., clinicians) conduct a given task

2. Input: what kind of data does the method require?

  1. Group of patients or other stakeholders willing to undergo CTA sessions

3. Algorithm: how does the method work?

Model mechanics

The most traditional CTA method is the think-aloud protocol, where patients or other individuals interact with the task, while they think aloud about what they are doing. The think-aloud will shed some light on their reasoning, when they might have questions or get lost, among other details.

Reporting guidelines

Data science packages

The following R packages are available:

  • Qualitative analysis packages such as RQDA.

Suggested companion methods

Learning materials

  1. Books

    • Working Minds: A Practitioner's Guide to Cognitive Task Analysis [1].
    • Cognitive Task Analysis [2].
    • Sources of Power: How People Make Decisions [3].
  2. Articles combining theory and scripts

    • Applied cognitive task analysis (ACTA): a practitioner's toolkit for understanding cognitive task demands [4].
    • Task analysis for the investigation of human error in safetycritical software design: a convergent methods approach [5].
    • Common references for qualitative methods

4. Output: how do I interpret this method's results?

Mock conclusions or most frequent format for conclusions reached at the end of a typical analysis.

Tables, plots, and their interpretation

The primary method is "think aloud" sessions where patients or other stakeholders simply read or interfact with the material while describing what they are doing. This think-aloud will elicit questions, points where the material might not be clear, false expectations leading to errors, among other types of input.

When evaluating experts, then a more complete framework should be used, such as the one by (ACTA) [4] and (HTA) [5]. These frameworks combine a progressive evaluation of the multiple steps included in expert decisions, as well as evaluating a large number of artifacts to make inferences in relation to the underlying process.

5. SporeData-specific

Templates

Data science functions

References

[1] Crandall B, Klein G, Klein GA, Hoffman RR. Working Minds: A Practitioner's Guide to Cognitive Task Analysis. Mit Press; 2006.

[2] Schraagen JM, Chipman SF, Shalin VL, editors. Cognitive Task Analysis. Psychology Press; 2000.

[3] Klein GA. Sources of power: How people make decisions. MIT press; 2017 Sep 8. Sources of Power: How People Make Decisions

[4] Militello LG, Hutton RJ. Applied cognitive task analysis (ACTA): a practitioner's toolkit for understanding cognitive task demands. Ergonomics. 1998 Nov 1;41(11):1618-41.

[5] Shryane NM, Westerman SJ, Crawshaw CM, Hockey GR, Sauer J. Task analysis for the investigation of human error in safetycritical software design: a convergent methods approach. 1998 Nov 1;41(11):1719-36.

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