This feature covers all tenses (present, past and future) and aims to capture phonologically free elements that do no inflect (i.e. do not change form depending on person, number and other categories of the core arguments). These markers are often described as ‘particles’ in the literature, but are also analyzed under other labels. We are interested in grammatical marking, i.e. dedicated, productive and obligatory marking. This means that words such as ‘tomorrow’ and ‘yesterday’ do not qualify as productively marking future and hesternal past.
Samoan (ISO 639-3: smo, Glottolog: samo1305)
Samoan has particles for tense and aspect. They distinguish present, past and future tense, as well as different aspects. Samoan is coded as 1 for this feature. The examples below are taken from Mosel & So'o (1997: 21).
Sā siva le teine PST dance DEF girl ‘The girl danced.’ (Mosel & So'o 1997: 21) 'Ole'ā siva le teine INCH dance DEF girl ‘The girl is going to dance.’ (Mosel & So'o 1997: 21) 'Olo'o siva le teine PROG dance DEF girl ‘The girl is dancing.’ (Mosel & So'o 1997: 21) 'Ua alu le teine PRF go DEF girl ‘The girl has gone.’ (Mosel & So'o 1997: 21)
Bybee, Joan, Revere Perkins & Pagliuca, William. 1994. The evolution of grammar. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Comrie, Bernard. 1976. Aspect. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Comrie, Bernard. 1985. Tense. Cambridge University Press.
Dahl, Östen. 1985. Tense and aspect systems. Oxford: Blackwell.
Mosel, Ulrike & So'o, Ainslie. 1997. Say it in Samoan. (Pacific Linguistics: Series D, 88.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.