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Does the verb for ‘give’ have suppletive verb forms?
This question concerns strong suppletion in verbs of giving. Suppletion is a process where a lexeme is changed in such a way that the new form does not resemble the previous when it appears in a different position in the paradigm. So called ‘weak’ suppletion is not included. An example of this is English went and go. In this case, the verb is suppletive for tense.
- Look up the section on ditransitive verbs.
- If no such section exists, search for the words ‘give’ and ‘receive’.
- If the verb paradigm for ‘give’ is not described, code as ?.
- If the verb ‘give’ is described as being non-variant in any way, code as 0.
- If the verb ‘give’ is strongly suppletive anywhere, code as 1.
Tongan (ISO 639-3: ton, Glottolog: tong1325)
In Tongan ‘give’ is expressed with the words mai and atu for give towards speaker and give away from speaker respectively (Churchward 1985: 20–21). The forms are very different from each other but both express the meaning ‘give' and the difference is in direction. Hence, they count as suppletion. Tongan is coded 1 for this feature.
Dressler, Wolfgang. 1985. Suppletion in word-formation. In Jacek Fisiak (ed.), Historical morphology, 97–112. The Hague: Mouton.
Veselinova, Ljuba N. 2006. Suppletion in verb paradigms: Bits and pieces of the puzzle. (Typological Studies in Language. Vol. 67.) Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Veselinova, Ljuba N. 2013. Suppletion according to tense and aspect. In Matthew S. Dryer & Martin Haspelmath (eds), The world atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
Churchward, Maxwell C. 1985 . Tongan grammar. Tonga: Vava'u Press.
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