GB298 - grambank/grambank Wiki
Can standard negation be marked by an inflecting word (‘auxiliary verb’)?
This feature refers to Standard Negation, i.e. the constructions that mark negation of (at least) dynamic (not-stative) verbal predicates in declarative mood. This question aims to capture phonologically free markers that inflect (i.e. change form depending on TAM, person, number and other categories of the core arguments). These inflecting phonologically free markers are often described as ‘auxiliary verbs’ in the literature, but are also analyzed under other labels by some authors (such as STAMP morphemes (STAM = Subject-Tense-Aspect-Mood-Polarity) or inflecting pronouns). We are interested in grammatical marking, i.e. dedicated, productive and obligatory marking.
- Find the section in the available descriptive literature that deals with negation.
- If you do not find any negation markers that inflect, code as 0.
- If an inflecting word clearly marks negation, code the language as 1.
- If it is not clear whether the inflecting word marks negation, code the language as ?.
Finnish (ISO 639-3: fin, Glottolog: finn1318)
Standard negation in Finnish is expressed with a negative auxiliary followed by the inflectional stem of the main verb. The form of the auxiliary varies according to the person and number of the subject (Karlsson 1999: 69–70). Finnish is coded 1 for this feature.
a. he lukevat 3PL read:3PL ‘they read’ (Karlsson 1999: 70) b. he eivät lue 3PL NEG.3PL read ‘they do not read’ (Karlsson 1999: 70) c. luemme 1PL:read ‘we read’ (Karlsson 1999: 70) d. emme lue NEG.1PL read ‘we do not read’ (Karlsson 1999: 70) e. tulet 2SG:come ‘you come’ (Karlsson 1999: 70) f. et tule NEG.2SG come ‘you do not come’ (Karlsson 1999: 70)
Croft, William. 1991. The evolution of negation. Journal of Linguistics 27(1). 1–27.
Dahl, Östen. 1979. Typology of sentence negation. Linguistics 17. 79–106.
Dahl, Östen. 2010. Typology of negation. In Laurence R. Horn (ed.), The expression of negation, 9–38. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Dryer, Matthew S. 2013. Negative morphemes. In Matthew S. Dryer & Martin Haspelmath (eds), The world atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
Payne, John R. 1985. Negation. In Timothy Shopen (ed.), Language typology and syntactic description, vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Karlsson, Fred. 1999. Finnish: an essential grammar. (Routledge Grammars.) London: Routledge.
- GB107 Can standard negation be marked by an affix, clitic or modification of the verb?
- GB137 Can standard negation be marked clause-finally?
- GB138 Can standard negation be marked clause-initially?
- GB139 Is there a difference between imperative (prohibitive) and declarative negation constructions?
- GB140 Is verbal predication marked by the same negator as all of the following types of predication: locational, existential and nominal?
- GB299 Can standard negation be marked by a non-inflecting word (‘auxiliary particle’)?
- GB400 Are all person categories neutralized in some voice, tense, aspect, mood and/or negation?