This feature focuses on standard negation, or the construction(s) that mark negation of (at least) dynamic (i.e. non-stative) verbal predicates in declarative mood. It is possible that the same negation construction will be used for other purposes as well (e.g. with stative or non-verbal predicates), but clauses involving predicates other than the aforementioned dynamic verbal predicates in declarative mood should be disregarded.
The position ‘clause-initial’ includes prefixes on clause-initial verbs, even if the negator is not the left-most prefix, but suffixes on clause-initial verbs do not count as clause-initial negation. If the negator consists of two obligatory elements and only one is clause-initial, this is sufficient to count as clause-initial negation and to trigger a 1 for this feature. As with other word order features in this dataset, we are concerned with the order of the negative marker when the clause has its canonical intransitive or transitive word order. We are not interested in cases of argument omission or pragmatically marked constructions (e.g. focus); these should be disregarded in coding this feature.
Masbatenyo (ISO 639-3: msb, Glottolog: masb1238)
The negative words used in standard negation in Masbatenyo are placed before the negated predicate (Rosero 2014: 114). As this language has V-initial word order, this results in a standard negation construction whose marker of negation is frequently clause-initial:
wará' na 'ako nakig'amígo sa 'íya NEG PRT 1SG.ABS INTR.RECP-make.friend OBL 3SG.OBL ‘I never made friends with her.’ (Rosero 2014: 61)
Masbatenyo is coded 1.
Bininj Kun-Wok (ISO 639-3: gup, Glottolog: gunw1252)
Negation is marked by a free-standing particle that occurs before the verb, resulting in clauses where the negator is the first element. This is an example of a 1.
Marrek Birri-ngui-yi NEG 3AUG/3MIN-eat-IRR ‘They didn't eat it.’ (Evans 2003: 604)
Tamambo (ISO 639-3: mla, Glottolog: malo1243)
The negator precedes the verb in Tamambo, but follows overt subjects in the standard negation construction:
tama-na ma-te soara-a father-3SG 3SG-NEG see=3SG ‘His father didn't see him.’ (Jauncey 2002: 619)
The negator is not in a clause-initial position in the construction that satisfies our definition of standard negation, so Tamambo is coded 0.
Croft, William. 1991. The evolution of negation. Journal of Linguistics 27(1). 1–27.
Dahl, Östen. 1979. Typology of sentence negation. Linguistics 17. 79–106.
Dahl, Östen. 2010. Typology of negation. In Laurence R. Horn (ed.), The expression of negation, 9–38. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Dryer, Matthew S. 2013. Negative morphemes. In Matthew S. Dryer & Martin Haspelmath (eds), The world atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
Dryer, Matthew S. 2013. Position of negative morpheme with respect to subject, object, and verb. In Matthew S. Dryer & Martin Haspelmath (eds), The world atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
Dryer, Matthew S. 2013. Order of negative morpheme and verb. In Matthew S. Dryer & Martin Haspelmath (eds), The world atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
Miestamo, Matti. 2013. Symmetric and asymmetric standard negation. In Matthew S. Dryer & Martin Haspelmath (eds), The world atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
Payne, John R. 1985. Negation. In Timothy Shopen (ed.), Language typology and syntactic description, vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Evans, Nicholas. 2003. Bininj Gun-Wok: A pan-dialectal grammar of Mayali, Kunwinjku and Kune. (Pacific Linguistics, 541.) Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.
Jauncey, Dorothy. 2002. Tamabo. In John Lynch, Malcolm Ross & Terry Crowley (eds), The Oceanic languages, 608–625. Richmond: Curzon.
Rosero, Michael Wilson I. 2014. A grammatical sketch of Masbatenyo. Quezon City: University of the Philippines. (MA thesis.)
Hannah J. Haynie