GB108 - grambank/grambank Wiki
Is there directional or locative morphological marking on verbs?
This question concerns a phonologically bound verbal marker that signals the direction or location of the event/state/action. A marker that indicates that something happens in multiple directions does not count here.
- Look up the section on verbal morphology.
- If no such section exists or if the grammar does not provide specific information on verbal morphology, search for the terms 'direction’, 'goal', 'go’, 'come’, and 'location’.
- If the language has no way to mark location or direction on the verb, code as 0.
- If the verb can carry a bound marker that indicates direction or location on the verb, code 1.
Makuwa (ISO 639-3: vmw, Glottolog: makh1264)
Makuwa has an applicative marker that can derive directional/locative verbs, as well as benefactive and instrumental verbs. Makuwa is coded 1 for this feature.
ni-n-thámá onakhálá ni-n-thám-élá onhípíti 1PL-PRS.CF-move 17.Nacala 1PL-PRS.CJ-move-DIR.APPL 17.Ilha ‘We move from Nacala to Ilha.’ (van der Wal 2009: 72) (Abbreviations: CJ = conjoint)
Haspelmath, Martin & Thomas Müller-Bardey. 2004. Valency change. In Geert E. Booij, Christian Lehmann, Joachim Mugdan & Stavros Skopeteas (eds), Morphology: An international handbook on inflection and word-formation, vol. 2, 1130–1145. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Peterson, David A. 1999. Discourse-functional, historical, and typological aspects of applicative constructions. Berkeley: University of California. (Doctoral dissertation.)
Polinsky, Maria. 2013. Applicative constructions. In Matthew S. Dryer & Martin Haspelmath (eds), The world atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
Pawley, Andrew. 2018. A short grammar of Wayan. unpublished grammar sketch.
van der Wal, Johanna. 2009. Word order and information structure in Makhuwa-Enahara. Leiden: Leiden University. (Doctoral dissertation.)
- GB103 Can a verb have a benefactive marker (applicative marker or index)?
- GB104 Can a verb have an instrumental marker (applicative marker or index)?
- GB114 Is there a phonologically bound reflexive marker on the verb?
- GB115 Is there a phonologically bound reciprocal marker on the verb?