GB107 - grambank/grambank Wiki

Original URL: https://github.com/grambank/grambank/wiki/GB107

Can standard negation be marked by an affix, clitic or modification of the verb?

Summary

This feature refers to Standard Negation, i.e. the constructions that mark negation of (at least) dynamic (not-stative) verbal predicates in declarative mood. The marker has to form a phonological unit with the verbal root, be it by affixation, cliticization, suppletion, reduplication, tone, etc. For markers bound to auxiliaries, see GB298. If there is negative marking on the verb and elsewhere (for example by a particle) in the same construction, this is included in this feature.

Procedure

  1. Find the section in the available descriptive literature that deals with negation.
  2. If suppletion is used, or a marker is described as an affix, a phonologically bound clitic, tone or reduplication and you see no reason to doubt that it is indeed bound, code 1.
  3. If the marker is described as a particle and it is unclear whether it is bound to the verb or not, look into more sources.
  4. If the marker can be bound and can be free (and you are sufficiently convinced that when it is described as bound it is indeed bound), code 1 for this feature and code 1 for GB298 and/or GB299.
  5. If there is more than one construction for marking standard negation, code for all of them.

Examples

Turkish (ISO 639-3: tur, Glottolog: nucl1301)

Standard negation in Turkish is marked using the suffix -mA on the verb (Kornfilt 1997: 123). Turkish is coded as 1 for this feature.

Hasan kitab-ı  oku-ma-dı
Hasan book-ACC read-NEG-PST
‘Hasan didn't read the book.’ (Kornfilt 1997: 123)

Further reading

Croft, William. 1991. The evolution of negation. Journal of Linguistics 27(1). 1–27.

Dahl, Östen. 1979. Typology of sentence negation. Linguistics 17. 79–106.

Dahl, Östen. 2010. Typology of negation. In Laurence R. Horn (ed.), The expression of negation, 9–38. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.

Dryer, Matthew S. 2013. Negative Morphemes. In Matthew S. Dryer & Martin Haspelmath (eds), The world atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

Dryer, Matthew S. 2013. Position of negative morpheme with respect to subject, object, and verb. In Matthew S. Dryer & Martin Haspelmath (eds), The world atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

Dryer, Matthew S. 2013. Order of negative morpheme and verb. In Matthew S. Dryer & Martin Haspelmath (eds), The world atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

Miestamo, Matti. 2013. Symmetric and asymmetric standard negation. In Matthew S. Dryer & Martin Haspelmath (eds), The world atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

Payne, John R. 1985. Negation. In Timothy Shopen (ed.), Language typology and syntactic description, vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

References

Kornfilt, Jaklin. 1997. Turkish. (Descriptive Grammars Series, Descriptive Grammars.) London: Routledge.

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