05. Supplied Services - gracicot/kangaru GitHub Wiki

Indeed, when a service is single, service() won't accept argument to forward to the constructor. This is because only the first call to service() creates an instance. Consider this code (bad example):

// Bad :(
Scene& scene1 = c.service<SceneService>(1024, 768);
Scene& scene2 = c.service<SceneService>(1920, 1080); // Oops! Constructor not called! The instance is reused.

// The scene still have a resolution of 1024x768

As a matter of fact, the service function has no mean to tell if the service has actually been created here. To resolve this, you can instead request the constuction of a service with the emplace(...) function. That function will perform injection like service(), but serves only to save a single into the container. Just like std::map, emplace only perform initialization if the container don't contain and instance yet. It returns true if the service is created, and false if there's already an instance in the container:

bool inserted = c.emplace<SceneService>(1920, 1080); // (1)
assert(inserted); // Passes.

inserted = c.emplace<SceneService>(1024, 768);
assert(inserted); // Fires, not created two times.

Scene& scene = container.service<SceneService>(); // Returns the instance created at (1)

As we can see, emplace only constructs if the element is not found. But as opposed to service, it can reports if it has already been inserted before. This gives us the opportunity to handle those case correctly.

Supplied Services

As container.service<SceneService>() requires the SceneService to be constructible using only it's dependencies, the following Scene declaration won't work:

struct Scene {
    Scene(Camera c, int w, int h) :
        camera{c}, width{w}, height{h} {}
    Camera camera;
    int width;
    int height;

Scene& scene = container.service<SceneService>(); // fails!

It's constructor must receive two additional integers after it's dependencies. Since container.service<SceneService>() must create a scene and does not forward any arguments to single services, there are no way to obtain a scene from the container!

In these cases, we must tell the container that it's normal it cannot construct it without arguments, and must be provided to the container before usage.

struct SceneService : kgr::single_service<Scene, kgr::dependency<CameraService>>, kgr::supplied {};

Now, we can use the service like this:

container.emplace<SceneService>(1920, 1080); // contruct a scene in the container.

Scene& scene = container.service<SceneService>(); // works, won't try to construct it.

Note that if the instance is not found, the container won't be able to construct it and will throw a kgr::supplied_not_found instead.

External services

The kangaru library also provide two supplied services specialized for cases where instances are created from an external system.

The first, kgr::extern_service<T> holds a reference to an instance of T. It behave just as a single service, but the instance must be provided to the container manually.

Here's an example of extern service:

struct Scene {};

struct SceneService : kgr::extern_service<Scene> {};

int main() {
    Scene scene;
    kgr::container container;
    // Add the scene
    // Passes, the container returns the instance we sent it.
    assert(&scene == &container.service<SceneService>());

The other external service is kgr::extern_shared_service<T>, which is analogous to the kgr::extern_service but inject and contains the service by shared pointers.

Here's the same example as above, but with teh shared external service:

struct Scene {};

struct SceneService : kgr::extern_shared_service<Scene> {};

int main() {
    auto scene = std::make_shared<Scene>();
    kgr::container container;
    // Add the scene
    // Passes, the container returns the same shared pointer we sent it.
    assert(scene == container.service<SceneService>());

Replace Services

The emplace function will only construct a service is it's not in the container yet. But what if you wanted to replace an existing service?

The container give you a way to explicitly replace a single service to it would be used in future injection. It's usage is similar to emplace:

kgr::container container;

container.emplace<SceneService>(640, 480);
Scene& scene1 = container.service<SceneService>();
container.replace<SceneService>(1920, 1080);
Scene& scene2 = container.service<SceneService>();

assert(&scene1 != &scene2); // passes, these are different instances of scenes

Note that when replacing, the container will not destroy the old service. In our example, scene1 is still valid after replace has been called. The lifetime of the first SceneService is not affected, and will be destroyed at the same time as the container.

To see more about supplied services, please see example5.

Next chapter: Autowire

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