week2.md - RyanChen-01/wp109b Wiki

Original URL: https://github.com/RyanChen-01/wp109b/wiki/week2.md

第2周筆記

屬性

超連結

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h2>The href Attribute</h2>

<p>HTML links are defined with the a tag. The link address is specified in the href attribute:</p>

<a href="https://www.w3schools.com">Visit W3Schools</a>

</body>
</html>

圖檔

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h2>The src Attribute</h2>
<p>HTML images are defined with the img tag, and the filename of the image source is specified in the src attribute:</p>

<img src="img_girl.jpg" >

</body>
</html>
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h2>The src Attribute</h2>
<p>HTML images are defined with the img tag, and the filename of the image source is specified in the src attribute:</p>

<img src="img_girl.jpg" width="500" height="600">

</body>
</html>

不顯示圖檔就顯示文字

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h2>The alt Attribute</h2>
<p>The alt attribute should reflect the image content, so users who cannot see the image gets an understanding of what the image contains:</p>

<img src="img_girl.jpg" alt="Girl with a jacket" width="500" height="600">

</body>
</html>
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h2>The alt Attribute</h2>
<p>The alt attribute should reflect the image content, so users who cannot see the image gets an understanding of what the image contains:</p>

<img src="xxx" alt="Girl with a jacket" width="500" height="600">

</body>
</html>

樣式

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h2>The style Attribute</h2>
<p>The style attribute is used to add styles to an element, such as color:</p>

<p style="color:red;">This is a red paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

語言

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en-US">
<body>
...
</body>
</html>

標題屬性

<html>
<body>

<h2 title="I'm a header">The title Attribute</h2>

<p title="I'm a tooltip">Mouse over this paragraph, to display the title attribute as a tooltip.</p>

</body>
</html>

#html中盡量加入""

better:

<a href="https://www.w3schools.com/html/">Visit our HTML tutorial</a>

worse:

<a href=https://www.w3schools.com/html/>Visit our HTML tutorial</a>

段落

分隔線(hr or hr/)

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h1>This is heading 1</h1>
<p>This is some text.</p>
<hr>

<h2>This is heading 2</h2>
<p>This is some other text.</p>
<hr>

<h2>This is heading 2</h2>
<p>This is some other text.</p>

</body>
</html>

換行(br & pre)

br

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<p>This is<br>a paragraph<br>with line breaks.</p>

</body>
</html>

pre

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<p>The pre tag preserves both spaces and line breaks:</p>

<pre>
   My Bonnie lies over the ocean.

   My Bonnie lies over the sea.

   My Bonnie lies over the ocean.
   
   Oh, bring back my Bonnie to me.
</pre>

</body>
</html>

style

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<p>I am normal</p>
<p style="color:red;">I am red</p>
<p style="color:blue;">I am blue</p>
<p style="font-size:50px;">I am big</p>

</body>
</html>

將頁面的背景顏色設置為粉藍色

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body style="background-color:powderblue;">

<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

為兩個不同的元素設置背景顏色

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h1 style="background-color:powderblue;">This is a heading</h1>
<p style="background-color:tomato;">This is a paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

文字顏色

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h1 style="color:blue;">This is a heading</h1>
<p style="color:red;">This is a paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

字體

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h1 style="font-family:verdana;">This is a heading</h1>
<p style="font-family:courier;">This is a paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

字體大小

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h1 style="font-size:300%;">This is a heading</h1>
<p style="font-size:160%;">This is a paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

文本對齊(center,left,right)

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h1 style="text-align:center;">Centered Heading</h1>
<p style="text-align:center;">Centered paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

格式

引用

blockquote - 通常用於瀏覽器

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<p>Browsers usually indent blockquote elements.</p>

<blockquote cite="http://www.worldwildlife.org/who/index.html">
For nearly 60 years, WWF has been protecting the future of nature. The world's leading conservation organization, WWF works in 100 countries and is supported by more than one million members in the United States and close to five million globally.
</blockquote>

</body>
</html>

q - 簡短的引用

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<p>Browsers usually insert quotation marks around the q element.</p>

<p>WWF's goal is to: <q>Build a future where people live in harmony with nature.</q></p>

</body>
</html>

abbr - 為瀏覽器、翻譯系統和搜索引擎提供有用的信息

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<p>The <abbr title="World Health Organization">WHO</abbr> was founded in 1948.</p>

<p>Marking up abbreviations can give useful information to browsers, translation systems and search-engines.</p>

</body>
</html>

address - 文檔或文章的作者/所有者的聯繫信息

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<p>The HTML address element defines contact information (author/owner) of a document or article.</p>

<address>
Written by John Doe.<br> 
Visit us at:<br>
Example.com<br>
Box 564, Disneyland<br>
USA
</address>

</body>
</html>

cite - 作品的標題

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<p>The HTML cite element defines the title of a work.</p>
<p>Browsers usually display cite elements in italic.</p>

<img src="img_the_scream.jpg" width="220" height="277" alt="The Scream">
<p><cite>The Scream</cite> by Edvard Munch. Painted in 1893.</p>

</body>
</html>

bdo - 覆蓋當前文本方向

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<p>If your browser supports bi-directional override (bdo), the next line will be written from right to left (rtl):</p>

<bdo dir="rtl">This line will be written from right to left</bdo>

</body>
</html>

註釋(!)

注意:開始標記有 ! ,但結束標記沒有。

   瀏覽器不會顯示註釋,但它們可以幫助記錄您的 HTML 源代碼。<br>
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<!-- This is a comment -->
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>
<!-- Comments are not displayed in the browser -->

</body>
</html>
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<!-- Do not display this at the moment
<img border="0" src="pic_trulli.jpg" alt="Trulli">
-->

</body>
</html>

顏色

邊框顏色

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h1 style="border: 2px solid Tomato;">Hello World</h1>

<h1 style="border: 5px dotted DodgerBlue;">Hello World</h1>

<h1 style="border: 10px dashed Violet;">Hello World</h1>

</body>
</html>

文字顏色

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h3 style="color:Tomato;">Hello World</h3>

<p style="color:DodgerBlue;">Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat.</p>

<p style="color:MediumSeaGreen;">Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.</p>

</body>
</html>

顏色値

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<p>Same as color name "Tomato":</p>

<h1 style="background-color:rgb(255, 99, 71);">rgb(255, 99, 71)</h1>
<h1 style="background-color:#ff6347;">#ff6347</h1>
<h1 style="background-color:hsl(9, 100%, 64%);">hsl(9, 100%, 64%)</h1>

<p>Same as color name "Tomato", but 50% transparent:</p>
<h1 style="background-color:rgba(255, 99, 71, 0.5);">rgba(255, 99, 71, 0.5)</h1>
<h1 style="background-color:hsla(9, 100%, 64%, 0.5);">hsla(9, 100%, 64%, 0.5)</h1>

<p>In addition to the predefined color names, colors can be specified using RGB, HEX, HSL, or even transparent colors using RGBA or HSLA color values.</p>

</body>
</html>

css

內聯 CSS

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h1 style="color:blue;">A Blue Heading</h1>

<p style="color:red;">A red paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

內部 CSS

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
body {background-color: powderblue;}
h1   {color: blue;}
p    {color: red;}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

外部 CSS

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="styles.css">
</head>
<body>

<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

外部樣式表可以在任何文本編輯器中編寫。該文件不得包含任何 HTML 代碼,並且必須以 .css 擴展名保存。

body {
  background-color: powderblue;
}
h1 {
  color: blue;
}
p {
  color: red;
}

CSS 顏色、字體和大小

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
h1 {
  color: blue;
  font-family: verdana;
  font-size: 300%;

}
p  {
  color: red;
  font-family: courier;
  font-size: 160%;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

CSS邊框

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
p {
  border: 2px solid powderblue;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h1>This is a heading</h1>

<p>This is a paragraph.</p>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

CSS填充

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
p {
  border: 2px solid powderblue;
  padding: 30px;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h1>This is a heading</h1>

<p>This is a paragraph.</p>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

CSS邊距

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
p {
  border: 2px solid powderblue;
  margin: 50px;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h1>This is a heading</h1>

<p>This is a paragraph.</p>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

鏈接到外部 CSS

使用完整 URL 鏈接到樣式表

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://www.w3schools.com/html/styles.css">
</head>
<body>

<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

鏈接到位於當前網站上 html 文件夾中的樣式表

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="/html/styles.css">
</head>
<body>

<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

鏈接到與當前頁面位於同一文件夾中的樣式

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="styles.css">
</head>
<body>

<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

超連結

基礎語法

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en-US">
<body>

<h2>Link Titles</h2>
<p>The title attribute specifies extra information about an element. The information is most often shown as a tooltip text when the mouse moves over the element.</p>
<a href="https://www.w3schools.com/html/" title="Go to W3Schools HTML section">Visit our HTML Tutorial</a>

</body>
</html>

目標屬性

在新的瀏覽器窗口或選項卡中打開鏈接的文檔

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h2>The target Attribute</h2>

<a href="https://www.w3schools.com/" target="_blank">Visit W3Schools!</a> 

<p>If target="_blank", the link will open in a new browser window or tab.</p>

</body>
</html>

絕對 URL 與相對 URL

上面的兩個示例都在屬性中使用了絕對 URL(完整的網址)href

本地鏈接(指向同一網站內頁面的鏈接)使用 相對 URL(不帶“https://www”部分)指定

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h2>Absolute URLs</h2>
<p><a href="https://www.w3.org/">W3C</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.google.com/">Google</a></p>

<h2>Relative URLs</h2>
<p><a href="html_images.asp">HTML Images</a></p>
<p><a href="/css/default.asp">CSS Tutorial</a></p>

</body>
</html>

用圖像作為鏈接

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h2>Image as a Link</h2>

<p>The image below is a link. Try to click on it.</p>

<a href="default.asp"><img src="smiley.gif" alt="HTML tutorial" style="width:42px;height:42px;"></a>

</body>
</html>

鏈接到電子郵件地址

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h2>Link to an Email Address</h2>

<p>To create a link that opens in the user's email program (to let them send a new email), use mailto: inside the href attribute:</p>

<p><a href="mailto:[email protected]">Send email</a></p>

</body>
</html>

按鈕作為鏈接

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h2>Button as a Links</h2>

<p>Click the button to go to the HTML tutorial.</p>

<button onclick="document.location='default.asp'">HTML Tutorial</button>

</body>
</html>

圖像

src屬性指定圖像的路徑 (URL)。

當網頁加載時;此時,瀏覽器從 Web 服務器獲取圖像並將其插入到頁面中。因此,請確保圖像實際上與網頁相關的位置相同,否則您的訪問者將獲得斷開的鏈接圖標。alt如果瀏覽器找不到圖像,則會顯示斷開的鏈接圖標和文本。

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h2>Alternative text</h2>

<p>The alt attribute should reflect the image content, so users who cannot see the image gets an understanding of what the image contains:</p>

<img src="img_chania.jpg" alt="Flowers in Chania" width="460" height="345">

</body>
</html>

alt 屬性

圖像提供替代文本,如果瀏覽器找不到圖像,它將顯示該alt 屬性的值

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<p>If a browser cannot find the image, it will display the alternate text:</p>

<img src="wrongname.gif" alt="Flowers in Chania">

</body>
</html>

表格

table 標籤定義了一個 HTML 表格。每個表格行都用一個 tr 標籤定義。每個表頭都用一個 th 標籤定義。每個表格數據/單元格都用一個 td 標籤定義 。

默認情況下,th元素中的文本是粗體且居中的。默認情況下,td元素中的文本是常規且左對齊的

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
table {
  font-family: arial, sans-serif;
  border-collapse: collapse;
  width: 100%;
}

td, th {
  border: 1px solid #dddddd;
  text-align: left;
  padding: 8px;
}

tr:nth-child(even) {
  background-color: #dddddd;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h2>HTML Table</h2>

<table>
  <tr>
    <th>Company</th>
    <th>Contact</th>
    <th>Country</th>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>Alfreds Futterkiste</td>
    <td>Maria Anders</td>
    <td>Germany</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>Centro comercial Moctezuma</td>
    <td>Francisco Chang</td>
    <td>Mexico</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>Ernst Handel</td>
    <td>Roland Mendel</td>
    <td>Austria</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>Island Trading</td>
    <td>Helen Bennett</td>
    <td>UK</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>Laughing Bacchus Winecellars</td>
    <td>Yoshi Tannamuri</td>
    <td>Canada</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>Magazzini Alimentari Riuniti</td>
    <td>Giovanni Rovelli</td>
    <td>Italy</td>
  </tr>
</table>

</body>
</html>

表單

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h2>HTML Forms</h2>

<form action="/action_page.php">
  <label for="fname">First name:</label><br>
  <input type="text" id="fname" name="fname" value="John"><br>
  <label for="lname">Last name:</label><br>
  <input type="text" id="lname" name="lname" value="Doe"><br><br>
  <input type="submit" value="Submit">
</form> 

<p>If you click the "Submit" button, the form-data will be sent to a page called "/action_page.php".</p>

</body>
</html>

單選

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h2>Radio Buttons</h2>

<form>
  <input type="radio" id="male" name="gender" value="male">
  <label for="male">Male</label><br>
  <input type="radio" id="female" name="gender" value="female">
  <label for="female">Female</label><br>
  <input type="radio" id="other" name="gender" value="other">
  <label for="other">Other</label>
</form> 

</body>
</html>

複選

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h2>Checkboxes</h2>
<p>The <strong>input type="checkbox"</strong> defines a checkbox:</p>

<form action="/action_page.php">
  <input type="checkbox" id="vehicle1" name="vehicle1" value="Bike">
  <label for="vehicle1"> I have a bike</label><br>
  <input type="checkbox" id="vehicle2" name="vehicle2" value="Car">
  <label for="vehicle2"> I have a car</label><br>
  <input type="checkbox" id="vehicle3" name="vehicle3" value="Boat">
  <label for="vehicle3"> I have a boat</label><br><br>
  <input type="submit" value="Submit">
</form> 

</body>
</html>

提交按鈕

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h2>HTML Forms</h2>

<form action="/action_page.php">
  <label for="fname">First name:</label><br>
  <input type="text" id="fname" name="fname" value="John"><br>
  <label for="lname">Last name:</label><br>
  <input type="text" id="lname" name="lname" value="Doe"><br><br>
  <input type="submit" value="Submit">
</form> 

<p>If you click the "Submit" button, the form-data will be sent to a page called "/action_page.php".</p>

</body>
</html>

注意,每個輸入字段都必須有一個name要提交的屬性。如果name省略該屬性,則根本不會發送輸入字段的值。

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h2>The name Attribute</h2>

<form action="/action_page.php">
  <label for="fname">First name:</label><br>
  <input type="text" id="fname" value="John"><br><br>
  <input type="submit" value="Submit">
</form> 

<p>If you click the "Submit" button, the form-data will be sent to a page called "/action_page.php".</p>

<p>Notice that the value of the "First name" field will not be submitted, because the input element does not have a name attribute.</p>

</body>
</html>

資料來源:w3school