2. GATHERING PERTINENT INFORMATION - P-Division-2022-2023-Odd/Repo08 GitHub Wiki


The aim of our project is to closing the window during the rain. Our project is working by the rack and pinion setup. Rain sensor is fixed in outside of the window and circuit is connected to the rack and pinion setup with motor which is connected with the window. During the rain, sensor sense the rain and it send the signal to the circuit then the motor runs. At the time of running we can control the working of window (opening and closing). The main advantage of this product is no need of man power to run.


Rain sensing windows are an innovative technology that has been designed to enhance the comfort and convenience of modern-day living. These windows are equipped with a highly sensitive sensor that detects rain and automatically closes the window to prevent water from entering your home or office. The rain sensing window technology is not only functional but also highly energy-efficient, as it prevents unnecessary heat loss during the colder months. With their advanced features, rain sensing windows have become an integral part of modern building design, providing a seamless and hassle-free experience to homeowners and commercial building owners alike. In this article, we will explore the benefits and advantages of rain sensing windows, how they work, and why they are an excellent addition to any building. It requires a various components such as:

1.Rack and Pinion

2.Rain sensor

3.DC motor

Problem Identification:

The absence of automatic rain sensing windows in buildings can lead to various problems. One of the main issues is water damage to the interior of buildings during heavy rainfall, which can result in costly repairs and maintenance. Additionally, without the ability to detect rain, windows may remain open during a storm, leading to safety hazards such as slippery floors and potential electrical damage. The lack of rain sensing windows can also result in energy waste, as occupants may leave windows open when they are not needed, leading to increased heating or cooling costs.

1.2 Components Required: The Automatic window consists of the following components.

1.Rack and Pinion

2.Rain sensor

3.Control switches

4.Circuit setup for automation

Rack And Pinion:

A rack and pinion is a type of linear actuator that comprises a pair of gears which convert rotational motion into linear motion. A circular gear called as the pinion engages teeth on a linear gear bar called the rack, rotational motion applied to the pinion causes the rack to move relative to the pinion, thereby translating motion of the pinion into linear motion. For example, in a rack railway, the rotation of a pinion mounted on a locomotive or a railcar engages a rack between the rails and forces a train up a steep stage. For every pair of conjugate involute profile, there is a basic rack. This Basic rack is the profile of the conjugate gear of infinite pitch radius. A generating rack is a rack outline used to indicate tooth details and dimensions for the design of a generating tool, such as hob or a gear shape cutter. As we all know it is a mechanical component which is generally used in the steering of cars or any automobiles. In which the two gears are used, driven gear is called as rack and driver gear is known as pinion. While working the Steering column turns the pinion gear. Pinion moves the rack which meshes with the pinion. Due to this the setup which is connected with this rack will move in horizontal direction to the rack, it will create the linear motion in the rack and pinion setup. The movement of the setup is generally measured in degrees in automobiles.


Rain Sensor:

Rain is a form of precipitation which forms when separate drops of rain fall to the Earth's surface from clouds. Not all rain reaches the surface, however; some evaporates while falling through dry air. When none of it reaches the ground, it is called virga, a phenomenon often seen in hot, dry desert regions. The scientific explanation of how rain forms and falls is called the Bergeron process. Rain plays a role in the hydrologic cycle in which moisture from the oceans evaporates, condenses into clouds, precipitates back to earth, and eventually returns to the ocean via streams and rivers to repeat the cycle again. There is also a small amount of rain vapor that respires from plants and evaporates to join other rain molecules in condensing into clouds. A rain sensor or rain switch is a switching device by rainfall. There are two main applications by rainfall. The first is a water conservation device connected to an automatic irrigation system that causes the system to shut down in the event of rainfall. The second is a device used to protect the interior of an automobile from rain and to support the automatic mode of windscreen wipers. An additional application in professional satellite communications antennas is to triggers a rain blower on the aperture of the antenna feed, to remove the water droplets from the Mylar and cover that keeps pressurized and dry air inside the wave guides. In 1958, the cadilac motor car division of general motors experimented with a water sensitive that triggered various electric motors to close the convertible top and raise the open windows of a specially-built Eldorado Biarritz model, in case of rain. The first such device appears to have been used foe that same purpose in a concept vehicle designated Le Sabre and built around 1950-51. The most modern rain sensors are based on the principle of total internal reflection: an infrared light is beamed at a 45 degree angle into the windshield from the interior-if the glass is wet, less light makes it back to the sensor, and the wipers turn on. Most vehicles with this feature have an AUTO position on the stalk. Total internal reflection is the phenomenon which occurs when a propagated wave strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface. If the refractive index is lower on the other side of the boundary and the incident angle is greater than the critical angle, the wave cannot pass through and is the angle of incidence above the total anfle of internal reflection occurs. This is particularly common as an optical phenomenon, where light waves are involved, but it occurs with many types of waves, such as electromagnetic waves in a general or sound waves. The amount of rainfall is measured using a rain gauge. It is expressed as the depth of rain that collects on a flat surface, and is routinely measured with an accuracy up to 0.1 mm or 0.01 in. It is sometimes expressed in liters per square meter (1 liter/m² = 1 mm). This circuit is designed with two lines are tracked with very short distance. When rain drops falls on this circuit, the track may become short circuit. It gives the corresponding signal to related circuit in order to find the rain fall.


It is an Electro-mechanical device that converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. The mechanical energy which is produced can be used to,

  1. Rotate pump impeller, fan, blower

  2. Drive compressors

  3. Lift materials

Working Of Electric Motor:

When a current carrying coil is kept in between the magnetic field it will experience some external force. Due to this force it creates a turning moment to the coils and influences a torque.Which helps coil to rotate. If the cuurent carrying wire is bent into a loop which are at right angles to the magnetic field will experience forces in opposite directions. Practical motors have several loops on an armature to provide a more uniform torque and the magnetic field is produced by an electromagnet arrangement called the field coils.


Advantages And Disadvantages:

Based on available information of automatic window opening and closing different advantages and disadvantages can be summarized as follows:


1.The main advantages of automatic window opening and closing are their low cost and high effectiveness.

2.Permitting a wide range of applications and versatility in the buildings(especially like IT Companies).

3.It requires no special skill to operate ( because of automation) and therefore is most suitable for rural application.

4.It can be made from locally available materials.

5.Less expensive to install and operate and can be easily made and maintained.


1.Sensor may get damage due to some natural affects like high speed flow of air in the atmosphere.

2.Some Space is required inside the building.

3.Automatic window will take more time (Especially after the flow of rain it takes more time to open the window).


The designed Automatic window model will be highly useful to buildings which are all in cities especially multinational companies of any fields such as IT, Mechanical Core.


  1. Gear nomenclature, definition of Terms with symbols. American Gear Manufacturers association.
  2. Rack and pinion variable ratio steering gear. Google patent search. Retrived
  3. Automax SuperNova Series Pneumatic, Rack & pinion.Flowserve Corporation.
  4. Mark, J., H.P. Trah, Y. Suzuki, 2010. Sensors applications, Sensors for Automotive applications, John wiley & sons,. D. Green, 2010. water conservations for small and medium-sized utilities, American water works associatrion.