2. PERTINENT INFORMATION GATHERING - P-Division-2022-2023-Odd/Repo06 GitHub Wiki
2.1 CONCEPT I :
AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING UNIT(RACK & PINION)
During monsoon, sellers with an open shop, neighbours drying clothes outside and many similar situations cause inconveniences in our life. In case of street vegetable sellers, they need to protect the vegetables, fruits and customers from rains in monsoon season. Even the tarpaulins don’t prove to be of any use during torrential rains accompanied by a thunderstorm. To overcome such problems and help us live with the inconvenience raining system. this auto rain-sensing umbrella smart system comes up with a solution. This smart rain sensing system can detect the rain and opens up the umbrella. In this smart system, we have a raindrop sensing system, which gives a reading proportional to the amount of rain pouring on it. The smart system consisting of a rack and pinion system, the rack is fixed to umbrella such that when a sensor senses the exceeding value of raindrops, it gives a signal to the pinion attached to a motor. Then the motor starts rotating and the umbrella opens.
- Rack and Pinion
- MS Pipe
- MS Links
- MS Plate
- Plastic Cover
The basic principle of a rack and pinion system is simple. When the pinion gear rotates, its teeth engage with the ridges on the rack and move it along its length. This type of system is more efficient and precise than a mechanical linkage, such as a belt or chain drive, as it does not require any slippage between the components. Additionally, it is compact and lightweight, making it ideal for use in tight spaces and limited-weight applications. Rack and pinion systems are available in a wide range of sizes and configurations, depending on the application. They can be used in various gear ratios, which allows for a precise control of the linear motion output. The gear ratio can also be adjusted to accommodate different speeds and loads, making this type of system highly versatile.
Rack and pinion systems are typically made of metal, such as steel or aluminum. They are also available in plastic or composite materials, which are more cost-effective and lighter in weight.Overall, rack and pinion mechanisms are an efficient, precise, and versatile solution for converting rotational motion into linear motion. They are commonly used in automotive, machine tool, and manufacturing applications.
SOLIDWORKS is a solid modeling computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) application published by Dassault Systèmes. SOLIDWORKS is used to develop mechanical systems from beginning to end. At the initial stage, the software is used for planning, visual ideation, modeling, feasibility assessment, prototyping, and project management. Eg:-Arduino board used to change the direction of motor for open and closing of umbrella.
2.2 CONCEPT 2:-SLIDER-CRANK MECHANISM
The aim of this project is to make a smart umbrella which can reduce human effort due to its functionality and can target the market due to its unique design, is really important in modern society at risk of rainfall and wind without coverage in place. The purpose of this project is to make such an umbrella that is really sensitive in the incidences of rain and sunlight at domestic and market level. Specifically, in summer season the floor of open areas gets so warm due to sun light that makes difficulty for working. This umbrella covers the entire hall during the rain and sunlight. This umbrella operates with the help of different sensors like temperature sensors and water sensors. The opening and closing of umbrella is being controlled through a Slider Crank mechanism. Motor can give a quick and instant response to the shaft so that shaft can play a major role of power transmission for opening and closing of umbrella. Motor provides required rpm to the shaft. Whenever temperature of the atmosphere goes above 40°, temperature sensor sends signal to Arduino which is control unit box. Then Arduino sends signal further to the motor so that motor may activate and deliver required rpm to the coupling shaft. This project is a cost-effective way of providing automated controlled shade from high intensity sunlight and rain. So, the problems of open and vast areas can be solved by using such types of automated umbrellas.
An umbrella is a folding canopy (overhead roof) supported by metal or wooden ribs that is usually mounted on a wooden, metal or plastic pole. It is designed to protect a person against sunlight and rain. Umbrellas and parasols are primarily hand-held portable devices sized for personal use. The largest hand-portable umbrellas are golf umbrellas. Umbrellas can be divided into two categories: Fully collapsible umbrellas, in which the metal pole supporting the canopy retracts, making the umbrella small enough to fit in a handbag and non-collapsible umbrellas, in which the support pole cannot retract and only the canopy can be collapsed. In summer season temperature of the atmosphere rises to temperature is so high. Temperature in summer days is normally above 40°C so there is need of a system which provides shadow and in rainy season gives shelter against rain . Generally, sun shading big umbrellas is used at beaches, swimming pools or in courtyards, a lot of coffee shops or restaurants also use sun-shading big umbrellas on tables and rain-shielding but also for providing a good mood of being in the surrounding. Therefore, the big umbrellas are quite practical. For such types of purposes, an automated umbrella is required which is equipped with modern technology. The vision is to make a optimize structure which is of low cost that fulfills the need of the people working in open areas. The main function of an automated umbrella is protection from sunlight. This umbrella meets these needs by using multiple sensors and a set of DC motors to automatically track the sun to maximize shading where it is being used. DC motor is used for direct and Instant response of a current having single phase. The selection of DC motor depends upon torque. It operates whenever sun rises in morning, sensors detect light and activate the motors of umbrella .
Material of the canopy :
Nylon fabric is smooth, clean, soft, lightweight and quick drying properties. Nylon is a common family polymer that is made, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides. Nylon is a thermoplastic silky material that can be melted - processed into fibers, films or shapes. Nylon polymers can be combined with a variety of materials to achieve a wide variety of materials. Nylon polymers acquire important commercial applications in textiles and yarns (clothing, floor reinforcement and rubber reinforcement. Due to the weather-resistant properties of nylon and high density of taffeta nylon, taffeta is extremely durable and useful for outdoor applications. This material is usually used for tents, jackets, bags, storage covers and bags. A wide range of sheets for this content is available in the market. Temperature absorption is related to color. The darker the color the more the heat will absorb the umbrella so we will choose the right color depending on the intensity of the sun .Pongee is a soft Chinese cloth that is made of silk and other threads. Pongee color is black and matte. Very high-quality fabric. Sounds like cotton touch. It is a medium-sized and balanced body because it is tightly woven. Pongee is more expensive than polyester and the quality is better. A medium and high-quality umbrella often uses a pongee cloth. Rain Slide is easy from Pongee's fabric and keeps the umbrella dry (Li, 2011). PVC and PoE plastic materials allow manufacturers to create clear umbrellas. Similarly, the PVC cover will stick when overheated during travel or storage. When mass is produced, all PVC umbrellas need to put talcum powder inside to avoid this problem and currently umbrella manufacturers are using better PoE materials instead. EVA is an opaque plastic material; it is softer than PVC and does not stick when umbrella closes (Day, 1985). Fabric made from dyed cloth is different in its style compared to printed fabric, physical characteristics are the dynamic physical parameters of fabric. Most of the strength and durability of the fabric are characteristics and not properties. There are four main categories of fabric characteristics that interest the manufacturer. They are:
Product production characteristics
Rainfall Monitoring using Acoustic Sensors :
An acoustic sensor is used to measure the environment and converts this information into a digital signal. The sensor can transfer information records to a web server and can trigger a SMS caution when rainfall information surpasses security limits. Rainfall information from the sensors are diagramed, broke down. It reports, out of the blue, the execution of an acoustic rain sensor. Furthermore, a tipping pail in a similar gadget is coordinated with an Android telephone. This new arrangement demonstrates the distinction between an ongoing acoustic rain sensor and a tipping basin, which is an aggregation sensor. The investigation highlights and execution of the acoustic sensors coordinates the improvement of minimal effort gadgets for social occasion rain information, which can supplement standard rain estimation gadgets.
Environmental Change Sensing :
An environmental sensor device is electrically connected to a power source and installed in the shading system for detecting environmental changes of the shading system. The active controller is electrically connected. The device has a natural sensor and basically controls the awning frame, where the active controller receives the command signal from a natural sensing device, the awning frame is adjusted accordingly regulate the area of its shadow.
Electric Servo and Detector Motion :
The functional controller comprises an electric servo which is electrically linked to the power source and is operatively controlled by the functional controller to automatically and selectively actuate the awning frame between an unfolded position that the sun shelter is expanded to maximize the shading area and a folded position that the sun shelter is folded up to minimize the shading area t. As a result, the electric servo is electrically connected to the wind detector and the motion detector so that the awning frame is capable of timely responding to the environmental change surrounding the intelligent outdoor Sun shading device .
Water Sensor :
A water detector is an electronic device designed to detect the presence of water for purposes such as providing timely awareness to allow for water leakage prevention. To detect rain, we used a water drop recognition module. It contains a series of similar cables. When water droplets come in contact with these wires, the rotation terminates and provides a signal to the microcontroller chip (Arduino) to control the flow of motion
Arduino is an open source electronic source software based on easy-to-use hardware and software. Arduino boards can read input - light sensor, fingerprint, or a message - and then take it out - activate the system, turn on the LED and publish something online. It can control the main circuit board what to do by sending a set of instructions to the microcontroller on board. To do so we use Arduino programming language (Wiring-based) and Arduino Software (IDE), based on Analyzing (Fig. 11). Over the years Arduino has been the central unit of thousands the electronics and robotics projects, from everyday objects to sophisticated scientific tools. A global community of practitioners - students, programmers and professionals - have gathered in this open source forum over the last few years. It provides incredible amount of information and a great help for professional automated projects. Motor Driver Integrated Circuit (L293D) The motor driver is an integrated circuit chip commonly used to control motors in autonomous robots. The motor driver acts as a link between the Arduino and the motors. ICs are widely used by motorists from L293 series such as L293D, L293NE, etc. These ICs are designed to control 2 DC motors simultaneously. The L293D has a dual H-bridge. The H-bridge is a very convenient circuit for controlling low current rates so the IC driver only drives the L293D. The L293D has 16 pins .
Movement of Umbrella Frame :
It operates both manually and automatically. A handle will available on the front wall of RCET Mosque which can provide ease to open umbrella manually. This is the second option to open the umbrella by hand by rotating the handle attaches to the shaft. Automatically it operates by sensing the temperature of the atmosphere and provide signal to the control box. Motor starts by taking the signal from the sensor and this all phenomena is taken and control by Arduino system. Shaft is attaching above the roof of hall. Motor transfer power to the shaft so that shaft rotates and open the umbrella sheet.
Slider-crank mechanism :
arrangement of mechanical parts designed to convert straight-line motion to rotary motion, as in a [reciprocating] piston engine, or to convert rotary motion to straight-line motion, as in a reciprocating piston pump. The basic nature of the mechanism (machinery) and the relative motion of the parts can best be described with the aid of the accompanying figure, in which the moving parts are lightly shaded. The darkly shaded part 1, the fixed frame or block of the pump or engine, contains a cylinder, depicted in [cross section] by its walls DE and FG, in which the piston, part 4, slides back and forth. The small circle at A represents the main crankshaft [bearing], which is also in part 1. The crankshaft, part 2, is shown as a straight member extending from the main [bearing at A to the crankpin bearing at B, which connects it to the connecting rod, part 3. The connecting rod is shown as a straight member extending from the crankpin bearing at B to the wristpin bearing at C, which connects it to the piston, part 4, which is shown as a rectangle. The three bearings shown as circles at A, B, and C permit the connected members to rotate freely with respect to one another. The path of B is a circle of radius AB; when B is at point h the piston will be in position H, and when B is at point j the piston will be in position J. On a [gasoline engine], the head end of the cylinder (where the explosion of the gasoline-air mixture takes place) is at EG; the pressure produced by the explosion will push the piston from position H to position J; return motion from J to H will require the rotational energy of a [flywheel]attached to the crankshaft and rotating about a bearing collinear with bearing A. On a [reciprocating] piston pump the crankshaft would be driven by a motor.
Morphological chart :
|2||Rain Sensing||Rain Detection Sensor Module|
|3||Material of Canopy||Nylon|
|4||Opening of stretcher||Slider-Crank Mechanism|
|6||Shutting up||Automatic (Drying of Rain Sensor)|
Parth Gunjikar 1612 ENC
2.3 CONCEPT 3:-AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING UMBRELLA
**System Design :-**The proposed system aims to provide a low cost, efficient and reliable solution to the defined problem. The model is practically checked against deformities and malfunctioning due to presence of non-essential elements- natural or artificial in nature. Hindrance due to the presence of dust particles, stones etc. is a bare minimum. In subsequent sections, we will be presenting a list of all the required tools and also provide an in-depth description of each of the tools in the list.The modelling and working of rain sensors along with the other components of the device to explain the overall working of the automated rain sensing umbrella.
Hardware design tools- A multitude of tools are used in the building of this model. The major hardware components used to build this model are mentioned below.
• Rain sensor- Rain sensors are devices that are used to detect raindrops. These are electrically isolated and are available as printed circuit boards. The working of a rain sensor can be adequately compared to the working of a switch. When rain falls, the switch turns to on mode. Whenever rain falls, the circuit gets completed and thus the resistance varies. They usually have a zigzag pattern of conductive path for conducting the rain fall or water fall. This rain sensor module can be used as switch for detecting the rain fall and the usage is quite simple. This rain sensor unit contains of a rain board and control board. Rain falls on the rain board which is equipped with two LED lights. In which one is for indicating the power supply and another one is for indicating the rain fall. The second LED light on the control board will blink only when the rain drops collided with the rain board. Rain board is adjusted to make fall the rain drops on it. Whenever the rain drops fall on the rain board, the LED indicator will blink and send the signal to the microcontroller regarding the intensity of the rain fall.
• Arduino Uno Microcontroller- The Arduino UNO is nothing but the microcontroller based on the ATmega328. Arduino Uno contains 14 digital input/output pins, 6 analogy inputs along with 16MHz ceramic resonator, a connection for USB, a Power jack, an ICSP header and a reset button. It is designed in such a way that it supports the microcontroller. The connection can be set in two ways viz., o With a computer by a USB o With the power with AC-to –DC adapter. A battery may be used for starting this. This is equipped with Atmega16U2 programmed as a USB to serial converters. This serial converter is the point of major difference between the Arduino and other FTDI USB-to-drive chip board.
Stepper Motor-A stepper motor is an electric motor whose main feature is that its shaft rotates by performing steps, that is, by moving by a fixed amount of degrees. This feature is obtained thanks to the internal structure of the motor, and allows to know the exact angular position of the shaft by simply counting how may steps have been performed, with no need for a sensor. This feature also makes it fit for a wide range of applications.
Servo Motor- Servo Motor is an electrical component that moves or rotates an object with the help of electricity. It is an electrical component that has high precession and high accuracy. It has high rotation capacity and is preferred where he object has to be rotated at necessary angles. This is a kind of motor that run through a servo mechanism. Based on the source of power, the servo motor are of two types: o DC powered servo motor o AC powered servo motor The servo motor used for the purpose of this project is highly efficient, light- weight and offers high force. These features are advantageous and hence these kinds of servo motors find application in development of toy cars, RC helicopters and planes etc. Servo motors are most commonly developed in kg/cm. This essentially means that the servo motor can be used in a device that weighs 6kg and the height of suspension of the weight is 1cm far from the shaft of the motor. Also, the bigger the gap the lesser the burden carrying capability becomes. An electric pulse determines the position of the servo motor and is placed beside the motor.
Working Principle- The rain sensor is placed on the umbrella. The rain sensor, servo motor and other required components get power from the battery. When the rain droplets fall on the rain board, the control board of the rain sensing unit sends the signal to the Arduino Uno module. The Arduino module estimates the intensity of rain fall by manipulating the signal given by the rain sensor module and then gives signal to the servo motor according to the rain fall. The servo motor takes the signal in the form of pulse width modulation, which is the representation of the intensity of the rain drops. The servo motor then rotates the wiper in accordance with the signal given by the Arduino module. For instance, if the rain fall intensity is very high the pulse width modulation will be high .
|1||TEMPERATURE SENSING||The Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD)|
|2||RAIN SENSING||DHT11 SENSOR|
|3||MATERIAL OF CANOPY||FIBRE|
|4||OPENING OF STRETCHER||LINKAGE MECHANISM|
|6||CLOSING OF UMBRELLA||BLUETOOTH|
Bhoomika Marigoudar 1669
2.4 Concept 4:-
# AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING UMBRELLA(GENEVA MECHANISM)
ABSTRACT: Automatic umbrellas are used in different aspects. It can be used in open cafes, restaurants, small parks, mosques, and field grounds etc. It’s a very cheap, easy and affordable project which can be used in multiple purposes. We try to make a prototype which can be sensed by rain and light. This project comprises of Arduino programming to run Motors by sensors.
The main objective of the present project is to provide an automatic umbrella that open and close itself according to given controlled conditions such that the umbrella will open automatically when its start raining and it will close down when it’s not raining. Moreover it will also open when it faces specific sunlight intensity.
The use of sensors play an important role in this project. The detailed information about sensors is given in the below presentation.
In this model 'GENEVA MECHANISM' can be used. Geneva mechanism, also called Geneva Stop, one of the most commonly used devices for producing rotary motion, characterized by alternate periods of motion and rest with no reversal in direction. It is also used for indexing (i.e., rotating a shaft through a prescribed angle).The Geneva drive or Maltese cross is a mechanism that translates a continuous rotation movement into intermittent rotary motion. The rotating drive wheel is usually equipped with a pin that reaches into a slot located in the other wheel (driven wheel) that advances it by one step at a time. The drive wheel also has an elevated circular blocking disc that "locks" the rotating driven wheel in position between steps.
|2||RAIN SENSING||CONDUCTIVE SENSOR|
|3||MATERIAL OF CANOPY||NYLON|
|4||OPENING OF STRETCHER||LINKAGE MECHANISM|
|6||CLOSING OF UMBRELLA||MANUAL|
reference:https://pin.it/l2IkdSq Devika Vijapur 1614