# Evaluations - Giovanni1085/KB_OCR_impact GitHub Wiki

For the evaluation of the data frames, the following were used:

### CER and WER

To calculate the CER, WER and WER(order independent) the ocrevalUAtion tool from the Impact Centre was used.

### Jaccard coefficient

The following function was used to calculate the jaccard coefficient:

``````def get_jaccard_sim(gt, ocr):
gt = set(gt.split())
ocr = set(ocr.split())
union = len(gt.union(ocr))
intersection = len(gt.intersection(ocr))
word_error_rate = intersection / union
return word_error_rate
``````

### Levenshtein distance

This calculation gave some troubles.

For the Meertens set, I used the Jellyfish package from Python. Then I calculated the normalized Levenshtein distance with the following code:

``````def normalized_levenshtein(str1, str2):
dist = jellyfish.levenshtein_distance(str1, str2)
maxstr = max(len(str1),len(str2))
output = dist / maxstr
return output
``````

Since the jellyfish packages was really slow for the Impact set, I implemented the same algorithm in c# sharp and calculated the distance with the c# function, which performed around 50 times faster. The normalization was done in Python as described above. The function:

``````using System;
using System.IO;

public static class StringDistance
{
/// <summary>
/// Compute the distance between two strings.
/// </summary>
public static int LevenshteinDistance(string s, string t)
{
int n = s.Length;
int m = t.Length;
int[,] d = new int[n + 1, m + 1];

// Step 1
if (n == 0)
{
return m;
}

if (m == 0)
{
return n;
}

// Step 2
for (int i = 0; i <= n; d[i, 0] = i++)
{
}

for (int j = 0; j <= m; d[0, j] = j++)
{
}

// Step 3
for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++)
{
//Step 4
for (int j = 1; j <= m; j++)
{
// Step 5
int cost = (t[j - 1] == s[i - 1]) ? 0 : 1;

// Step 6
d[i, j] = Math.Min(
Math.Min(d[i - 1, j] + 1, d[i, j - 1] + 1),
d[i - 1, j - 1] + cost);
}
}
// Step 7
return d[n, m];
}
}
``````

### Dictionary lookup

The dictionary lookup was performed with two lexicons.
The first was a modern lexicon of the Dutch language, provided by OpenTaal. For this lookup, the 'wordlist.txt' was used.
The second lexicon was from the Instituut van de Nederlandse taal and is called the INT historical wordlist. Quote from the INT website: "Two lists, each consisting of approx. 500,000 historical word forms, to be used for OCR and OCR post-correction, for the period of 1550 – 1970, approximately."
Both list from the INT were used.

The following step were performed to calculate the percentage of the dictionary lookup:

• The text was stripped from punctuation marks;
• The text and word lists were set to lowercase;
• The text was lemmatized with the lemmatize option from the Spacy Python package;
• The text was transformed into a set;
• The set was compared with the word lists;
• The whole numbers 0 till 1000000 were marked as correct;
• The percentage was calculated by dividing the total of matched words through the total set of words from the text.