generic glossary - EuropaBON/EBV-Descriptions Wiki

Term Description
EBV Abbreviation for Essential Biodiversity Variable. EBVs are defined as a minimum set of measurements, complementary to one another, that can capture major dimensions of biodiversity change. EBVs are organized in six classes (Genetic composition, Species populations, Species traits, Community composition, Ecosystem functioning, Ecosystem structure) and cover the three realms (Marine/coastal, Terrestrial and Freshwater). https://geobon.org/ebvs
Generic EBV
Genetic composition This EBV class captures metrics of within-species genetic variation across space and time (Hoban et al 2022). It Includes four generic EBVs (Infraspecific genetic diversity, Genetic differentiation, Effective population size, Inbreeding). https://geobon.org/ebvs
- Infraspecific genetic diversity The level of genetic variability within species populations. It is typically captured by two complementary metrics: the number of alleles in a population (richness) and the expected and observed proportion of heterozygotes in a population at equilibrium (evenness). Adapted from Hoban et al. (2022).
- Genetic differentiation The divergence in the frequencies of alleles between populations of the same species (Hoban et al. 2022).
- Effective population size The size of an ideal population that loses genetic variation at the same rate as the focal population (Hoban et al. 2022).
- Inbreeding Degree of relatedness between individuals of a population (Hoban et al. 2022).
Species populations EBV class that accesses the spatial and temporal variability in the species populations. This includes two generic EBVs (Species distribution, Species abundance). https://geobon.org/ebvs
- Species distribution The probability of occurrence of a species or group of species, measured (or modeled) along contiguous spatial and temporal units. In some cases it may be just a binary variable corresponding to the presence/absence of the species, in others it may refer to the probability that the cell is occupied by the species of interest in a given time period (Jetz et al. 2019).
- Species abundance The estimated count of individuals or relative abundance of a species or group of species, measured (or modeled) over contiguous spatial and temporal units (Jetz et al. 2019).
Species traits EBV class that captures the spatial and temporal variation in trait measurements within species. This includes five generic EBVs (Morphology, Physiology, Reproduction, Phenology, Movement). https://geobon.org/ebvs
- Morphology The volume, mass, height or other traits defining the form of organisms grouped by species, measured (or modeled) over contiguous over contiguous spatial and temporal units (adapted from Kissling et al. (2018)).
- Physiology Values of biochemical or physical quantities (e.g., thermal tolerance, disease resistance) describing functions of organisms grouped by species, measured (or modeled) over contiguous over contiguous spatial and temporal units. Adapted from Kissling et al. (2018).
- Reproduction Age at maturity, number of offspring and other reproduction traits of organisms grouped by species, measured (or modeled) over contiguous spatial and temporal units.
- Phenology The timing of cyclical biological phenomena, such as the presence, absence, abundance, or duration of seasonal activities of organisms (Kissling et al. 2018), measured (or modeled) for each species over contiguous spatial and temporal units. This can include the date of emergence of leaves and flowers, the first flight of butterflies, the first appearance of migratory birds, the date of leaf coloring and fall in deciduous trees, the dates of egg-laying of birds and amphibia, or the timing of the developmental cycles of honey bee colonies.
- Movement Spatial mobility attributes of species, measured (or modeled) over contiguous spatial and temporal units (e.g. natal dispersal distance, migration routes).
Community composition EBV class that assesses inter-specific variability in trait measurements across space and time. This includes four generic EBVs (Community abundance, Taxonomic/phylogenetic diversity, Trait diversity, Interaction diversity). https://geobon.org/ebvs
- Community abundance The number or biomass of all individuals (belonging to one or more species) in a given community, measured (or modeled) over contiguous spatial and temporal units.
- Taxonomic/ phylogenetic diversity The diversity of species and/or phylogenetic distances of organisms in ecological assemblages, measured (or modeled) over contiguous spatial and temporal units. There are several metrics that can be used, such as species richness, different Hill numbers, phylogenetic diversity, etc.
- Trait diversity The diversity of traits of organisms (including those whose species identity is unknown) within ecological assemblages, measured (or modeled) over contiguous spatial and temporal units. Typically this requires a direct measurement of the whole community for each trait of interest, providing a distribution of the trait values in a community, often in a multidimensional trait space. This trait distribution is often summarized in a single metric (e.g. functional divergence or functional richness, Mason et al. 2005). Alternatively, independent measurements of abundance or presence of each of the organisms in a community and a trait matrix describing the trait values for each species can be used to reconstruct the trait distribution in trait space.
- Interaction diversity The diversity and structure of multi-trophic interactions between organisms within ecological assemblages, measured (or modeled) over contiguous spatial and temporal units (Pug et al. 2022). Measurements of interaction diversity could include those derive from ecological networks and food web analyses.
Ecosystem function EBV class that captures the spatio-temporal variability of the collective performance of organisms that determines the functioning of an ecosystem. This includes three generic EBVs (Primary productivity, Ecosystem phenology, Ecosystem disturbance). https://geobon.org/ebvs
- Primary productivity Estimated rate at which energy is converted to organic matter by photosynthetic producers, measured (or modeled) over contiguous spatial and temporal units.
- Ecosystem phenology The timing of cyclic processes observed at the ecosystem level, such as the start or duration of vegetation activity or phytoplankton blooms, measured (or modeled) over continuous spatial and temporal units.
- Ecosystem disturbance The amount of deviance in the functioning of each ecosystem from its regular dynamics, measured (or modeled) over contiguous spatial and temporal units. Examples include fire, flood, soil erosion.
Ecosystem structure EBV class capturing the spatial and temporal variability of ecosystem units and the organisms defining these units. This includes three generic EBVs (Live cover fraction, Ecosystem distribution, Ecosystem vertical profile). https://geobon.org/ebvs
- Live cover fraction The ratio of the horizontal projection area covered by living organisms, such as vegetation, macroalgae or live hard coral, measured (or modeled) over contiguous spatial and temporal units.
- Ecosystem distribution The area or probability of occurrence of one or more discrete ecosystem types, measured (or modeled) over contiguous spatial and temporal units. In some cases, this could be just a binary variable (presence/absence) or correspond to the output of a probabilistic model for one or more ecosystem types.
- Ecosystem vertical profile Vertical distribution of vegetation volume and biomass in an ecosystem of interest, measured (or modeled) over contiguous spatial and temporal units.
EBV attributes Properties of the biological entities that are being measured.
EBV Class EBVs are organized in six classes (Genetic composition, Species populations, Species traits, Community composition, Ecosystem functioning, Ecosystem structure).
EBV Name One of the standard names listed in https://geobon.org/ebvs
EBV Metric Name of metric used to measure an EBV (for instance probability of occupancy or relative abundance in relation to a baseline).
EBV Realm/domain Three realms (Marine, Terrestrial and Freshwater).
EBV Spatial Extent Region covered by the EBV (e.g. Europe, EU27+UK).
EBV Spatial scope The scope of its spatial extent (Global, continental, national, local, etc)
EBV Temporal Extent Time frame covered by the EBV (e.g. 2018-onwards).
EBV Spatial Resolution Unit Resolution of the map (e.g. 1x1 km grid cell) obtained by interpolation/extrapolation of the original data collected.
EBV Temporal Resolution Unit Resolution of the time-series (e.g. 1 year) obtained by interpolation/extrapolation from data collected.
Taxonomic/ ecosystem focus group Scope of biological entities (the object that is being measured) being monitored with the EBV. It can be a list of species, ecosystem types, or any other biological entity. It may have a standard classification scheme associated (e.g., a standard taxonomy).
EBV entity/ taxonomic classification system The system that is used to classify the taxonomic/ ecosystem focus group (e.g.The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, EUNIS habitat classification).
EBV scenario Biodiversity forecasts under e.g., different policy or management scenarios. Other examples include climate or land-use scenarios.
Biodiversity indicator Measures of biodiversity that help scientists, managers and politicians understand the condition of biodiversity and the factors that affect it (International Union for the Conservation of Nature 2015). Examples of indicators include information on threats, or on society’s response to changes in biodiversity (Pettorelli et al. 2016).
EESV Abbreviation for Essential Ecosystem Services Variable. EESVs are defined as a minimum set of measurements, complementary to one another, that can capture major dimensions of ecosystem services change. https://geobon.org/ebvs/ecosystem-services/
Terms about the raw monitoring data and sampling
Spatial coverage The scope of the monitoring scheme (e.g. local, regional, sub-national, national, international).
Taxonomic/ ecosystem coverage Taxa or ecosystem types covered by the monitoring scheme.
Country coverage Countries covered by the monitoring scheme.
Temporal coverage The length of the time series.
Sampling density Number of sampling units per area/ region/ country (e.g. XX 10x10km grid cells, XX points distributed randomly).
Sampling Frequency Number of samples per unit time (e.g. snapshot/ once-off, annually).
Minimum Sampling Unit Resolution Accuracy at which the location is registered (e.g. exact location, 10x10km grid).
Minimum Time Unit Resolution Accuracy at which the time is registered (e.g. second, hour, day, month year).
Raw data Data collected in the field at the minimum sampling and time unit resolutions.
Raw data access The degree of compliance of the raw data with FAIR principles (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, and Reuse, https://www.go-fair.org/fair-principles/).
Other terms
Policy targets European Union action for environmental conservation and protection (e.g. Habitats Directive), and the restoration of habitats and ecosystems (e.g. Nature Restauration Law). This also includes economic policy with implications for biodiversity and ecosystems conservation (e.g. Common Agriculture Policy, CAP).
Monitoring scheme Systematic/standardised monitoring scheme where a field protocol is followed, and able to provides quantitative data on biodiversity for a given study area. Sampling undermonitoring schemes can be carried outonce or repeatedly over a given time frame. The former generates once-off estimates whereas the latter generates a time-series of estimates.
Systematic/ standardised monitoring Existence of a scheme where a specific field protocol is followed.
European Integration Monitoring Initiatives (captured in the EuropaBON web-based database) Initiative that integrates biodiversity data from systematic monitoring programs and that are able to generate an EBV /EESV/ Indicator at the European spatial scale. In most cases, these initiatives are associated with monitoring networks coordinated at the supranational level. Occasionally, initiatives also integrate data from non-systematic surveys.
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