Literature Review - CankayaUniversity/ceng-407-408-2021-2022-An-Educational-Game-Platform-for-Primary-School-Children Wiki

Table of Contents

Abstract

Nowadays, the role of educational games in learning is becoming serious. The proliferation of distance education with Covid-19 has shown how useful and effective educational games are during this period, in some cases mandatory. STEM subjects have an important role in the earlier education phase and more specifically at the elementary school level. In this report, we explored how we can reduce the subjects that children have the most experimental difficulties in lessons to an easier level to understand with the help of educational play.

Introduction

Children enjoy playing games and often equate games with fun. Teachers of primary mathematics can capitalise on this fact and design instructional games to motivate children to learn [1]. STEM is a curriculum based on the idea of educating students in four specific disciplines — science, technology, engineering, and mathematics — in an interdisciplinary and applied approach. Rather than teach the four disciplines as separate and discrete subjects, STEM integrates them into a cohesive learning paradigm based on real-world applications [2]. In this document, our goal is to prepare more effective and fun content for our game by looking at similar games that we plan to make to primary school students, examining the topics, and we will examine not only the games that have been made, but also the incomprehensible subjects in mathematics and the methods developed about these topics.

Importance of Math Games in Education

Fun and inspiring games are enjoyed by people of all ages. Students may learn about basic number concepts including counting sequences, one-to-one correspondence, and calculation procedures through games. Number combinations, place value, patterns, and other fundamental mathematical topics may all be explored through engaging mathematical games. Students can also use them to improve their mathematical thinking and knowledge. Teachers should give children many chances to play games, then wait for the mathematical concepts to emerge when students detect new patterns, links, and tactics. In primary school mathematics classes, games are a significant technique for learning:

  • Playing games improves strategic mathematical thinking by allowing students to experiment with different problem-solving tactics while also deepening their comprehension of numbers.
  • Games that are played repeatedly help kids improve computational fluency.
  • Games give practice opportunities without requiring teachers to provide the issues. Teachers can then watch or assess pupils and work with single students or small groups.
  • Games have the ability to help students get more familiar with the number system and "benchmark numbers" (such as the tens, hundredths, and thousandths) as well as engage in computation exercise, allowing them to gain a better knowledge of operations.
  • Games facilitate the transfer of knowledge from the classroom to the home. Playing games with their children at home can help parents understand more about their children's mathematical thinking [3].

How Should The Educational Game Be

Invest in quality art and sound:

We all perceive the world through our senses, but children rely more on sensory experiences than adults. That's why you should pay extra attention to the art, animations, sounds and vibrations in your game. For young children - young children and preschoolers - experts often recommend brighter and larger visual elements, since young children rarely focus on details. Older children, on the other hand, often enjoy games that require focus and attention to detail. It goes without saying that the sound should be of high quality, compatible with the theme of the game and visuals. Catchy tunes are popular among android and iOS mobile devices and educational games for kids for the web.

Go for hyper-casual games:

One of the defining features of hyper-casual games is that the sessions are short. Children, especially younger ones, tend to lose their focus quickly, and long sessions with the same mechanics can squeeze them quickly. Short sessions combined with various tasks will direct children to play and learn in a more relevant way and for longer periods of time [4].

Name Description
Exams Exams are the first mechanism that comes to mind when it comes to educational games for children. In a game, quizzes must be included in the character journey so that they are best suited for an RPG or adventure game.
Puzzles Puzzles can be incorporated into an adventure game along with other mechanics, or they can be single-core mechanics of a learning game that teaches something visual, such as the names and colors of objects, animals and plants.
Combination Combining objects to get new objects is extremely fun for kids, and with merging you can teach them the basic science facts. Check out Little Alchemy to see how you can use merging to teach children how elements mix in the world around them.
Connecting You can often see connection mechanics in hyper-everyday games. This mechanic asks users to connect two or more points efficiently while avoiding obstacles and traps. It encourages analytical skills and strategic thinking.
Timers A timer is usually an additional mechanic, since its main purpose is to put some pressure on you to complete tasks faster. It is a good addition to educational games of the quiz genre, as it makes it difficult for young students to find the right answer somewhere.

When planning educational games, it is also very important to be able to choose the most accurate game type, playgroup, venue and the right tool equipment to be used in the game according to the age, development level and interests of the participants. When choosing an educational game, we can list the considerations as follows.

  1. The purpose of the game
  2. Player level
  3. Location of the game
  4. Tools to use
  5. Duration of the game

A: Purpose of the Game

It should be well known what is intended with the game being played and planning should be done for that purpose. Accordingly, the selected game must be fit for purpose. For example, in a situation where we aim to gain the importance of cooperation, it is necessary to have activities and games that can be done together rather than having activities where individual characteristics come to the fore.

B: Player Level

Players' gender, age, physical capacity, abilities and physical competence should be taken into account; players must be eligible for the game with these features. Having activities that are much more difficult than players can do can distract the game from its purpose or cause a variety of problems. Players with chronic conditions should not be included in overactive games, they should be given more passive roles. In addition, appropriate groups should be created for the game, children with leadership qualities should be given to different groups, each child should be given the opportunity to become a leader.

C: Location of the Game

The place where the game or event will take place must be safe, and materials that may be dangerous to players should be removed from the playing field. Games can be played in a large or narrow space, either in the hall or outside, according to their characteristics. It must be decided in advance where the game will be played. Where in the class the game will be played if it is to be played in the classroom; if it is to be played outdoors, it should be determined in advance whether it will be played in grass, woodland or concrete area and game planning should be done accordingly.

D: Tools to Be Used in the Game

The tools to be used in the game should be taken into the game plan. In addition, game-specific tools must be sufficient for each child. Ensure that game tools do not harm players. The tools to be used must be in accordance with the purpose of the game and the characteristics of the player.

E: Duration of The Game

The warm-up game should be played for 5 minutes, the moving game should be played for 15 minutes, the relaxing game should be played for 10 minutes. In addition to these specified periods, 10 more minutes should be reserved for the repetition of the game, the introduction of the new game, the disclosure of its rules and the evaluation of the game. Some games must be played based on the number of replays instead of the duration. If the children's interest is dissipated at the end of the game, the game should not be repeated. In young children, time limits should be placed on strenuous games even if the attractiveness of the game is not lost. Because the player who is too immersed in the game may not be aware that he is struggling. Especially during this period, it should be noted that the game is not played until it is exhausted [5].

Similar Applications

Monster Math

The application called monster math is a mathematical application used by Makkajai Edu Tech Private Limited to help students with difficulties before kindergarten and up to 4th grade of primary school. Students practice their common core aligned math skills. Available free on iPad, iPhone, or Android, the app progresses through the main story to engage students and help them practice and learn basic four-operation calculations, multiplication tables, as well as more than 40 skills in multipliers, multiples, and primes. The app is fully customizable to suit your student's ability, and you can choose difficulty between basic and advanced skills with a simple toggle. With detailed reports and weekly emails, it gives you an in-depth view of how a student is progressing in math.[6] [7]

Math vs Zombies

Math vs Zombies is an application developed by ToptoLearn Software to help children between kindergarten and primary school 5th grade with difficulties in mathematics, with topics on basic 4 operations, price $4.99 and published on December 12, 2013. One level (easy, medium, hard) and seven games are played in each world of addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division. In each world, children solve a series of math problems. When zombies appear (with chilling music), players solve each zombie's math problem by selecting a number on the touchscreen and then zapping that zombie with a lightning bolt. In the seventh game of each level, each of the zombies carries four math problems that must be solved to complete the game. Winning each level unlocks the next. You can repeat the levels as many times as you want. Creepy/cute characters and ominous music add charm to a game that is essentially a fun way to practice math.[8]

Monster Math Duel: Fun arithmetic math fight games

Developed by Makkajai Edu Tech Private Limited, Monster Math Duel is free to try, but you can pay later; Available on Apple Store and Play Store, It is a math application that you can do addition, division, fractions, geometry, multiplication, shapes, subtraction, was released on May 4, 2017, and helps students in grades 1 to 4. Start by adding a name to the app and choosing a class level. At one grade level, children can switch to playing all skills or manually select the skills they want to practice. For all skills, children can choose one or all of the following: Equals, Not Equals, or Compare. This determines the type of challenge in the game. For example, if children select the "Subtract Within 10" skill and then choose "Equals", the game will start with something like "Equal to 8" and the children must select all the subtraction problems (within 10) displayed on the screen. . It is equal to 8. To start playing the game, children choose one of three game options. The Nearby option allows parents to add up to seven players on other devices via Wi-Fi, the Split Screen option lets kids play on one device against an opponent of any grade level, and the VS Computer option lets kids play against the computer. . All games are timed and the one with the most points wins the round. Parents can view a simple progress report to find out what skills their child is practicing and how well they are doing.[9][10]

Conclusion

In summary, in our project, we have planned the developed an application where children can learn mathematics topics that are suitable for the curriculum that they have difficulty in understanding, but also having fun with it. Playing games especially games that have concern to teach something may get boring, but in our game we prevent that issue by making various and interesting games for all classes in primary school (1., 2., 3., and, 4. classes).

References

[1] Koay Phong Lee, “The use of mathematical games in teaching primary mathematics” [Online]. Available: https://repository.nie.edu.sg/bitstream/10497/87/1/TME-1-2-172.pdf [Accessed 7 November 2021]

[2] Elaine J. Hom, “What is STEM Education?”, February 12, 2014 [Online]. Available: https://www.livescience.com/43296-what-is-stem-education.html [Accessed 7 November 2021]

[3] Kitty Rutherford, “Why Math Games are Important”, [Online]. Available: https://www.mathnasium.com/why-math-games-are-important [Accessed 9 November 2021]

[4] 2021-10-05 "Eğitici Oyun Geliştirme: Çocuklar İçin Öğrenme Oyunları Nasıl Oluşturulur”. [Online]. Available: https://www.affde.com/tr/educational-game-development.html [Accessed: 10 November 2021]

[5] Beden Eğitimi ÖABT "Eğitsel Oyun Planlaması Nasıl Yapılmalıdır?".28 March 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.besyohaber.net/egitsel-oyun-planlamasi-nasil-yapilmalidir/ [Accessed: 11 November 2021]

[6] “MonsterMath”, [Online]. Available: https://www.makkajai.com/apps [Accessed 9 November 2021].

[7] “MonsterMath”, [Online]. Available: https://www.edsurge.com/product-reviews/monster-math [Accessed 9 November 2021].

[8] “Math Vs Zombies - Math Games Grade K - 5”, Common Sense Media [Online]. Available: https://www.commonsensemedia.org/app-reviews/math-vs-zombies-math-games-grade-k-5 [Accessed 9 November 2021].

[9] “Duel 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Math Games for Kids”, Common Sense Media, [Online]. Available: https://www.commonsensemedia.org/app-reviews/duel-1st-2nd-3rd-4th-grade-math-games-for-kids [Accessed 8 November 2021]

[10] “Monster Math Duel: Fun arithmetic math fight games”, Makkajai: Math Games for 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th grade, [Online]. Available: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.makkajai.monster_math_2_mp_free&hl=tr&gl=US [Accessed 8 November 2021].